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1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE

6.1 - Poison
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The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond, U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number
  • 71-55-6   (1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE)
DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • Poison
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
Methyl chloroformexternal link
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
1
2 0
Blue Health 2 Can cause temporary incapacitation or residual injury.
Red Flammability 1 Must be preheated before ignition can occur.
Yellow Instability 0 Normally stable, even under fire conditions.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
A colorless liquid with a sweet, pleasant odor. May irritate skin, eyes and mucous membranes. In high concentrations the vapors may have a narcotic effect. Nonflammable, but may decompose and emit toxic chloride fumes if exposed to high temperatures. Used as a solvent.

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts, air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
none
Air & Water Reactions
Insoluble in water. Absorbs some water.
Fire Hazard
Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic and irritating gases are generated in fires. (USCG, 1999)
Health Hazard
INHALATION: symptoms range from loss of equilibrium and incoordination to loss of consciousness; high concentration can be fatal due to simple asphyxiation combined with loss of consciousness. INGESTION: produces effects similar to inhalation and may cause some feeling of nausea. EYES: slightly irritating and lachrymatory. SKIN: defatting action may cause dermatitis. (USCG, 1999)
Reactivity Profile
1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE decomposes in the presence of chemically active metals. This includes aluminum, magnesium and their alloys. It will react violently with dinitrogen tetraoxide, oxygen, liquid oxygen, sodium and sodium-potassium alloys. It will also react violently with acetone, zinc and nitrates. It can react with sodium hydroxide. It is incompatible with strong oxidizers and strong bases. Mixtures with potassium or its alloys are shock-sensitive and may explode on light impact. This chemical can react with an aqueous suspension of calcium hydroxide, and with chlorine in sunlight. It will attack some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings. Upon contact with hot metal or on exposure to ultraviolet radiation, it will decompose to form irritant gases. A cobalt/molybdenum-alumina catalyst will generate a substantial exotherm on contact with its vapor at ambient temperatures. Hazardous reactions also occur with (aluminum oxide + heavy metals). (NTP, 1992).
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

No information available.

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 160 [Halogenated Solvents]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions.

LARGE SPILL: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 100 meters (330 feet).

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2016)
Firefighting
Excerpt from ERG Guide 160 [Halogenated Solvents]:

SMALL FIRE: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray.

LARGE FIRE: Dry chemical, CO2, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire-control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material.

FIRE INVOLVING TANKS OR CAR/TRAILER LOADS: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. (ERG, 2016)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 160 [Halogenated Solvents]:

ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Stop leak if you can do it without risk.

SMALL LIQUID SPILL: Pick up with sand, earth or other non-combustible absorbent material.

LARGE SPILL: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. (ERG, 2016)
Protective Clothing
Skin: Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.

Eyes: Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

Wash skin: The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.

Remove: Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.

Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the work shift. (NIOSH, 2016)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
Tychem® Fabric Legend
QS = Tychem 2000 SFR
QC = Tychem 2000
SL = Tychem 4000
C3 = Tychem 5000
TF = Tychem 6000
TP = Tychem 6000 FR
BR = Tychem 9000
RC = Tychem RESPONDER® CSM
TK = Tychem 10000
RF = Tychem 10000 FR
Testing Details
The fabric permeation data was generated for DuPont by independent testing laboratories using ASTM F739, EN369, EN 374-3, EN ISO 6529 (method A and B) or ASTM D6978 test methods. Normalized breakthrough times (the time at which the permeation rate is equal to 0.1 µg/cm2/min) reported in minutes. All liquid chemicals have been tested between approximately 20°C and 27°C unless otherwise stated. A different temperature may have significant influence on the breakthrough time; permeation rates typically increase with temperature. All chemicals have been tested at a concentration of greater than 95% unless otherwise stated. Unless otherwise stated, permeation was measured for single chemicals. The permeation characteristics of mixtures can deviate considerably from the permeation behavior of the individual chemicals. Chemical warfare agents (Lewisite, Sarin, Soman, Sulfur Mustard, Tabun and VX Nerve Agent) have been tested at 22°C and 50% relative humidity per military standard MIL-STD-282.
Normalized Breakthrough Times (in Minutes)
Chemical CAS Number State QS QC SL C3 TF TP BR RC TK RF
Trichloroethane, 1,1,1- (>95%) 71-55-6 Liquid >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480
> indicates greater than.
A blank cell indicates the fabric has not been tested. The fabric may or may not offer barrier.

Special Warnings from DuPont

  1. Serged and bound seams are degraded by some hazardous liquid chemicals, such as strong acids, and should not be worn when these chemicals are present.
  2. CAUTION: This information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable. It is subject to revision as additional knowledge and experience are gained. DuPont makes no guarantee of results and assumes no obligation or liability...
    ... in connection with this information. It is the user's responsibility to determine the level of toxicity and the proper personal protective equipment needed. The information set forth herein reflects laboratory performance of fabrics, not complete garments, under controlled conditions. It is intended for informational use by persons having technical skill for evaluation under their specific end-use conditions, at their own discretion and risk. Anyone intending to use this information should first verify that the garment selected is suitable for the intended use. In many cases, seams and closures have shorter breakthrough times and higher permeation rates than the fabric. Please contact DuPont for specific data. If fabric becomes torn, abraded or punctured, or if seams or closures fail, or if attached gloves, visors, etc. are damaged, end user should discontinue use of garment to avoid potential exposure to chemical. Since conditions of use are outside our control, we make no warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, no warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use and assume no liability in connection with any use of this information. This information is not intended as a license to operate under or a recommendation to infringe any patent or technical information of DuPont or others covering any material or its use.

(DuPont, 2018)

First Aid
EYES: First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.

SKIN: IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop, IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment.

INHALATION: IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. If symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop, call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used; if not available, use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing.

INGESTION: DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Volatile chemicals have a high risk of being aspirated into the victim's lungs during vomiting which increases the medical problems. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. (NTP, 1992)

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • C2H3Cl3
Flash Point: greater than 200 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): 7.5 % (NTP, 1992)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): 12.5 % (NTP, 1992)
Autoignition Temperature: 932 ° F (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: -26.5 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Vapor Pressure: 100 mm Hg at 68 ° F ; 125 mm Hg at 77° F (NTP, 1992)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 4.6 (NTP, 1992)
Specific Gravity: 1.31 at 68 ° F (USCG, 1999)
Boiling Point: 165.4 ° F at 760 mm Hg (NTP, 1992)
Molecular Weight: 133.4 (NTP, 1992)
Water Solubility: less than 1 mg/mL at 68° F (NTP, 1992)
Ionization Potential: 11.00 eV (NIOSH, 2016)
IDLH: 700 ppm (NIOSH, 2016)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

Interim AEGLs for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (71-55-6)
Exposure Period AEGL-1 AEGL-2 AEGL-3
10 minutes 230 ppm 930 ppm 4200 ppm
30 minutes 230 ppm 670 ppm 4200 ppm
60 minutes 230 ppm 600 ppm 4200 ppm
4 hours 230 ppm 380 ppm 2700 ppm
8 hours 230 ppm 310 ppm 2100 ppm
(NAC/NRC, 2017)

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

Chemical ERPG-1 ERPG-2 ERPG-3
1,1,1-Trichloroethane (71-55-6) 350 ppm star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1. 700 ppm 3500 ppm
star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1.
(AIHA, 2016)

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Trichloroethane, 1,1,1-; (Methyl chloroform) (71-55-6) 230 ppm 600 ppm 4200 ppm LEL = 75000 ppm
(DOE, 2016)

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 1000 pounds 313 U226
Methyl chloroform 71-55-6 1000 pounds X U226

(EPA List of Lists, 2015)

DHS Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

No regulatory information available.

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

No regulatory information available.

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.
  • AEROTHENE
  • AEROTHENE TT
  • ALPHA-T
  • ALPHA-TRICHLOROETHANE
  • CF 2
  • CHLOROETENE
  • CHLOROETHENE
  • CHLOROETHENE NU
  • CHLOROTENE
  • CHLOROTHANE NU
  • CHLOROTHENE
  • CHLOROTHENE (STABILIZED)
  • CHLOROTHENE NU
  • CHLOROTHENE SM
  • CHLOROTHENE VG
  • CHLORTEN
  • CLEANITE
  • ETHANA NU
  • F 140A
  • GENKLENE LB
  • HCC 140A
  • ICI-CF 2
  • INHIBISOL
  • METHYL CHLOROFORM
  • METHYLCHLOROFORM
  • METHYLTRICHLOROMETHANE
  • NCI-C04626
  • SOLVENT 111
  • STROBANE
  • TAFCLEAN
  • TCA
  • 1,1,1-TCE
  • THREE ONE A
  • THREE ONE S
  • TRI-ETHANE
  • 1,1,1-TRICHLORETHANE
  • TRICHLOROETHANE
  • 1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE (STABILIZED)
  • 1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE
  • TRICHLOROMETHYLMETHANE

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