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PENTANOIC ACID

8 - Corrosive
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The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond, U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number
  • 109-52-4
DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • Corrosive
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
none
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
1
3 0
Blue Health 3 Can cause serious or permanent injury.
Red Flammability 1 Must be preheated before ignition can occur.
Yellow Instability 0 Normally stable, even under fire conditions.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
A colorless liquid with a penetrating unpleasant odor. Density 0.94 g / cm3. Freezing point -93.2°F (-34°C). Boiling point 365.7°F (185.4°C). Flash point 192°F (88.9° C). Corrosive to metals and tissue.

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts, air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
none
Air & Water Reactions
Water soluble.
Fire Hazard
Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Irritating vapors and toxic gases, such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, may be formed when involved in fire. (USCG, 1999)
Health Hazard
Corrosive. Very destructive to tissues of the mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. Symptoms may include burning sensation, coughing, wheezing, laryngitis, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting. Extremely destructive to skin. May be absorbed through the skin. (USCG, 1999)
Reactivity Profile
PENTANOIC ACID is a carboxylic acid. Exothermically neutralizes bases, both organic and inorganic, producing water and a salt. Can react with active metals to form gaseous hydrogen and a metal salt. Reacts with cyanide salts to generate gaseous hydrogen cyanide. Flammable and/or toxic gases and heat are generated by reaction with diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, and sulfides. Reacts with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates and dithionites to generate flammable and/or toxic gases and heat. Reacts with carbonates and bicarbonates to generate a harmless gas (carbon dioxide) but still heat. Can be oxidized by strong oxidizing agents and reduced by strong reducing agents. These reactions generate heat. May initiate polymerization reactions. May catalyze (increase the rate of) chemical reactions.
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

No information available.

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 153 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Combustible)]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids.

SPILL: Increase, in the downwind direction, as necessary, the isolation distance shown above.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2016)
Firefighting
Excerpt from ERG Guide 153 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Combustible)]:

SMALL FIRE: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray.

LARGE FIRE: Dry chemical, CO2, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire-control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material.

FIRE INVOLVING TANKS OR CAR/TRAILER LOADS: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. (ERG, 2016)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 153 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Combustible)]:

ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. (ERG, 2016)
Protective Clothing
Full impervious protective clothing, including boots and gloves. Where splashing is possible wear full face shield or chemical safety goggles. Do not wear contact lenses when working with this material. Use approved respirator to protect against vapors. (USCG, 1999)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
No information available.
First Aid
EYES: First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.

SKIN: IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital for treatment after washing the affected areas.

INHALATION: IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. If symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop, call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used; if not available, use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing.

INGESTION: DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Corrosive chemicals will destroy the membranes of the mouth, throat, and esophagus and, in addition, have a high risk of being aspirated into the victim's lungs during vomiting which increases the medical problems. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Transport the victim IMMEDIATELY to a hospital. (NTP, 1992)

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • C5H10O2
Flash Point: 192 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): 1.6 % (USCG, 1999)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): 7.6 % (USCG, 1999)
Autoignition Temperature: 752 ° F (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: -30.1 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Vapor Pressure: 1 mm Hg at 108 ° F ; 40 mm Hg at 226.0° F; 760 mm Hg at 363.9° F (NTP, 1992)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 3.52 (NTP, 1992)
Specific Gravity: 0.939 (USCG, 1999)
Boiling Point: 365 ° F at 760 mm Hg (NTP, 1992)
Molecular Weight: 102.13 (NTP, 1992)
Water Solubility: 10 to 50 mg/mL at 72° F (NTP, 1992)
Ionization Potential: data unavailable
IDLH: data unavailable

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

No AEGL information available.

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

No ERPG information available.

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Valeric acid; (n-Pentanoic acid) (109-52-4) 2.2 mg/m3 24 mg/m3 140 mg/m3 LEL = 16000 ppm
(DOE, 2016)

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

No regulatory information available.

DHS Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

No regulatory information available.

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

No regulatory information available.

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.
  • BUTANECARBOXYLIC ACID
  • 1-BUTANECARBOXYLIC ACID
  • N-PENTANOIC ACID
  • N-VALERIC ACID
  • PENTANOIC ACID
  • PROPYLACETIC ACID
  • VALERIANIC ACID
  • VALERIC ACID

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