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FORMALDEHYDE

9 - Miscellaneous hazardous material
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The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number
  • 50-00-0
DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • Class 9
none
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
Formaldehydeexternal link
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
2
3 0
Blue Health 3 Can cause serious or permanent injury.
Red Flammability 2 Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
Yellow Instability 0 Normally stable, even under fire conditions.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
Solids containing varying amounts of formaldehyde, probably as paraformaldehyde (polymers of formula HO(CH2O)xH where x averages about 30). A hazard to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit spread to the environment.

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
  • Polymerizable
Air & Water Reactions
No rapid reaction with air. No rapid reaction with water.
Fire Hazard
Excerpt from ERG Guide 171 [Substances (Low to Moderate Hazard)]:

Some may burn but none ignite readily. Containers may explode when heated. Some may be transported hot. For UN3508, Capacitor, asymmetric, be aware of possible short circuiting as this product is transported in a charged state. Polymeric beads, expandable (UN2211) may evolve flammable vapours. (ERG, 2020)
Health Hazard
Excerpt from NIOSH Pocket Guide for Formaldehydeexternal link:

Exposure Routes: Inhalation, skin and/or eye contact

Symptoms: Irritation eyes, nose, throat, respiratory system; lacrimation (discharge of tears); cough; wheezing; [potential occupational carcinogen]

Target Organs: Eyes, respiratory system

Cancer Site: Nasal cancer (NIOSH, 2022)
Reactivity Profile
FORMALDEHYDE (ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, SOLID, N.O.S.) may react violently with strong oxidizing agents (hydrogen peroxide, performic acid, perchloric acid in the presence of aniline, potassium permanganate, nitromethane). May react with bases (sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonia), and with nitrogen dioxide (explosive reaction around 180°C). May react with hydrochloric acid to form highly toxic bis(chloromethyl) ether. Polymerization reaction with phenol may develop sudden destructive pressure [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p.168]. May generate flammable and/or toxic gases in combination with azo, diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, nitrides, and strong reducing agents. May generate toxic formaldehyde gas when heated. Can react with air to give first peroxo acids, and ultimately formic acid. These reactions are activated by light, catalyzed by salts of transition metals, and are autocatalytic (catalyzed by the products of the reaction). Incompatible with liquid oxygen.
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

Use caution: Liquids with this reactive group classification have been known to react with the absorbents listed below. More info about absorbents, including situations to watch out for...

  • Cellulose-Based Absorbents
  • Mineral-Based & Clay-Based Absorbents
  • Dirt/Earth

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 171 [Substances (Low to Moderate Hazard)]:

IMMEDIATE PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE: Isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids.

SPILL: Increase the immediate precautionary measure distance, in the downwind direction, as necessary.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2020)
Firefighting
Excerpt from ERG Guide 171 [Substances (Low to Moderate Hazard)]:

SMALL FIRE: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or regular foam.

LARGE FIRE: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Do not scatter spilled material with high-pressure water streams. If it can be done safely, move undamaged containers away from the area around the fire. Dike runoff from fire control for later disposal.

FIRE INVOLVING TANKS: Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. (ERG, 2020)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 171 [Substances (Low to Moderate Hazard)]:

Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent dust cloud. For Asbestos, avoid inhalation of dust. Cover spill with plastic sheet or tarp to minimize spreading. Do not clean up or dispose of, except under supervision of a specialist.

SMALL DRY SPILL: With clean shovel, place material into clean, dry container and cover loosely; move containers from spill area.

SMALL SPILL: Pick up with sand or other non-combustible absorbent material and place into containers for later disposal.

LARGE SPILL: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Cover powder spill with plastic sheet or tarp to minimize spreading. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. (ERG, 2020)
Protective Clothing
Excerpt from NIOSH Pocket Guide for Formaldehydeexternal link:

Skin: No recommendation is made specifying the need for personal protective equipment for the body.

Eyes: PREVENT EYE CONTACT - Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

Wash skin: No recommendation is made specifying the need for washing the substance from the skin (either immediately or at the end of the work shift).

Remove: No recommendation is made specifying the need for removing clothing that becomes wet or contaminated.

Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the workshift. (NIOSH, 2022)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
Tychem® Fabric Legend
QS = Tychem 2000 SFR
QC = Tychem 2000
SL = Tychem 4000
C3 = Tychem 5000
TF = Tychem 6000
TP = Tychem 6000 FR
RC = Tychem RESPONDER® CSM
TK = Tychem 10000
RF = Tychem 10000 FR
Testing Details
The fabric permeation data was generated for DuPont by a third party laboratory. Permeation data for industrial chemicals is obtained per ASTM F739. Normalized breakthrough times (the time at which the permeation rate exceeds 0.1 μg/cm2/min) are reported in minutes. All chemicals have been tested between approximately 20°C and 27°C unless otherwise stated. All chemicals have been tested at a concentration of greater than 95% unless otherwise stated. Chemical warfare agents (Lewisite, Sarin, Soman, Sulfur Mustard, Tabun and VX Nerve Agent) have been tested at 22°C and 50% relative humidity per military standard MIL-STD-282. "Breakthrough time" for chemical warfare agents is defined as the time when the cumulative mass which permeated through the fabric exceeds the limit in MIL-STD-282 [either 1.25 or 4.0 μg/cm2].
A Caution from DuPont
This information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable on the date issued. It is subject to revision as additional knowledge and experience are gained. The information reflects laboratory performance of fabrics, not complete garments, under controlled conditions. It is intended for informational use by persons having technical skill for evaluation under their specific end-use conditions, at their own discretion and risk. It is the user's responsibility to determine the level of toxicity and the proper personal protective equipment needed. Anyone intending to use this information should first verify that the garment selected is suitable for the intended use. In many cases, seams and closures have shorter breakthrough times and higher permeation rates than the fabric. If fabric becomes torn,abraded or punctured, or if seams or closures fail, or if attached gloves, visors, etc. are damaged, end user should discontinue use of garment to avoid potential exposure to chemical. Since conditions of use are outside our control, DuPont makes no warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, no warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use and assume no liability in connection with any use of this information. This information is not intended as a license to operate under or a recommendation to infringe any patent, trademark or technical information of DuPont or others covering any material or its use.
Normalized Breakthrough Times (in Minutes)
Chemical CAS Number State QS QC SL C3 TF TP RC TK RF
Formaldehyde (100 ppm) 50-00-0 Vapor >480 >480 >480
Formaldehyde (37%) 50-00-0 Liquid >480 >480 >480 >480
Formalin (100 ppm) 50-00-0 Vapor >480 >480 >480
Formalin (3.7%, 1-1.5% Methanol) 50-00-0 Liquid >480
Formalin (37% (10-15% Methanol)) 50-00-0 Liquid imm >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480
Formalin (37%) 50-00-0 Liquid >480 >480 >480 >480
> indicates greater than.
"imm" indicates immediate; having a normalized breakthrough time of 10 minutes or less.

Special Warning from DuPont: Tychem® and Tyvek® fabrics should not be used around heat, flames, sparks or in potentially flammable or explosive environments. Only...

...Tychem® ThermoPro, Tychem® Reflector® and Tychem® TK styles 600T/601T (with aluminized outer suit) garments are designed and tested to help reduce burn injury during escape from a flash fire. Users of Tychem® ThermoPro, Tychem® Reflector® and Tychem® TK styles 600T/601T (with aluminized outer suit) garments should not knowingly enter an explosive environment. Tychem® garments with attached socks must be worn inside protective outer footwear and are not suitable as outer footwear. These attached socks do not have adequate durability or slip resistance to be worn as the outer foot covering.

(DuPont, 2022)

First Aid
Excerpt from NIOSH Pocket Guide for Formaldehydeexternal link:

Eye: IRRIGATE IMMEDIATELY - If this chemical contacts the eyes, immediately wash (irrigate) the eyes with large amounts of water, occasionally lifting the lower and upper lids. Get medical attention immediately.

Breathing: RESPIRATORY SUPPORT - If a person breathes large amounts of this chemical, move the exposed person to fresh air at once. If breathing has stopped, perform artificial respiration. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Get medical attention as soon as possible. (NIOSH, 2022)

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • CH2O
Flash Point: data unavailable
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): 7 % (NIOSH, 2022)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): 73 % (NIOSH, 2022)
Autoignition Temperature: data unavailable
Melting Point: -134°F (NIOSH, 2022)
Vapor Pressure: greater than 1 atm (NIOSH, 2022)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 1.04 (NIOSH, 2022)
Specific Gravity: data unavailable
Boiling Point: -6°F at 760 mmHg (NIOSH, 2022)
Molecular Weight: 30 (NIOSH, 2022)
Water Solubility: Miscible (NIOSH, 2022)
Ionization Energy/Potential: 10.88 eV (NIOSH, 2022)
IDLH: 20 ppm ; A potential occupational carcinogen. (NIOSH, 2022)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

Interim AEGLs for Formaldehyde (50-00-0)
Exposure Period AEGL-1 AEGL-2 AEGL-3
10 minutes 0.9 ppm 14 ppm 100 ppm
30 minutes 0.9 ppm 14 ppm 70 ppm
60 minutes 0.9 ppm 14 ppm 56 ppm
4 hours 0.9 ppm 14 ppm 35 ppm
8 hours 0.9 ppm 14 ppm 35 ppm
(NAC/NRC, 2022)

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

Chemical ERPG-1 ERPG-2 ERPG-3
Formaldehyde (50-00-0) 1 ppm star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1. 10 ppm 40 ppm
star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1.
(AIHA, 2020)

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Formaldehyde (50-00-0) 0.9 ppm 14 ppm 56 ppm
(DOE, 2018)

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 500 pounds 100 pounds 100 pounds 313 U122 15000 pounds
Formaldehyde (solution) 50-00-0 500 pounds 100 pounds 100 pounds X U122 15000 pounds

(EPA List of Lists, 2022)

CISA Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

RELEASE THEFT SABOTAGE
Chemical of Interest CAS Number Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Formaldehyde (solution) 50-00-0 1.00 % 15000 pounds toxic

(CISA, 2007)

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

Chemical Name CAS Number Threshold Quantity (TQ)
Formaldehyde (Formalin) 50-00-0 1000 pounds

(OSHA, 2019)

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.
  • BFV
  • F-GEN
  • FANNOFORM
  • FLOGUARD 1015
  • FM 282
  • FORMALDEHYDE
  • FORMALIN
  • FORMALITH
  • FORMIC ALDEHYDE
  • FORMOL
  • FYDE
  • LYSOFORM
  • METHALDEHYDE
  • METHANAL
  • METHYL ALDEHYDE
  • METHYLENE OXIDE
  • MORBICID
  • OXOMETHANE
  • OXYMETHYLENE
  • PARAFORM
  • SUPERLYSOFORM

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