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CHLOROFORM

6.1 - Poison
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The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond, U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number
  • 67-66-3   (CHLOROFORM)
DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • Poison
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
Chloroformexternal link
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
0
2 0
Blue Health 2 Can cause temporary incapacitation or residual injury.
Red Flammability 0 Will not burn under typical fire conditions.
Yellow Instability 0 Normally stable, even under fire conditions.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
A clear colorless liquid with a characteristic odor. Denser (12.3 lb / gal) than water and slightly soluble in water. Hence sinks in water. Nonflammable under most conditions, but burns under extreme conditions. May cause illness by inhalation, skin absorption or ingestion. Used as a solvent, to make other chemicals, as a fumigant.

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts, air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
none
Air & Water Reactions
Slightly soluble in water. Dissolves in water to form a corrosive solution of hypochlorous acid which decomposes on standing to chlorine, oxygen, and chloric acid.
Fire Hazard
Container may explode in the heat of fire. When heated it liberates phosgene, hydrogen chloride, chlorine and toxic and corrosive oxides of carbon and chlorine. Chloroform explodes when in contact with aluminum powder or magnesium powder or with alkali metals (e.g., lithium, sodium, and potassium) and dinitrogen tetroxide. It reacts vigorously with acetone in the presence of potassium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide. It is oxidized by strong oxidizers such as chromic acid forming phosgene and chlorine. It reacts vigorously with triisopropylphosphine. It develops acidity from prolonged exposure to air and light. (EPA, 1998)
Health Hazard
It is classified as moderately toxic. Probable oral lethal dose for humans is 0.5 to 5 g/kg (between 1 ounce and 1 pint) for a 150 lb. person. The mean lethal dose is probably near 1 fluid ounce (44 g). It is a human suspected carcinogen. Also, it is a central nervous system depressant and a gastrointestinal irritant. It has caused rapid death attributable to cardiac arrest and delayed death from liver and kidney damage. (EPA, 1998)
Reactivity Profile
A mixture of acetone and CHLOROFORM in a residue bottle exploded. Since addition of acetone to chloroform in the presence of base will result in a highly exothermic reaction, it is thought that a base was in the bottle. [MCA Case History 1661(1970)]. Powdered aluminum and carbon tetrachloride (also methyl chloride and chloroform or mixtures of these chemicals) exploded when heated (to 153° C) and by impact, [Chem. Eng. News 32:258(1954); UL Bull. Research 34 (1945), ASESB Pot. Incid. 39(1968)]. An inadequately cooled addition of sodium to a chloroform-methanol mixture (sodium methoxide) caused a violent explosion, [MCA Case History No. 693]. It is incompatible with dinitrogen tetraoxide, fluorine, sodium metal and alcohols, nitromethane, and triisopropylphosphine.
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

No information available.

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 151 [Substances - Toxic (Non-combustible)]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids.

SPILL: Increase, in the downwind direction, as necessary, the isolation distance shown above.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2016)
Firefighting
Wear self-contained breathing apparatus and special protective clothing. Move container from fire area. Fight fire from maximum distance. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material.

Extinguish with dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray, fog or foam. (EPA, 1998)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 151 [Substances - Toxic (Non-combustible)]:

Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Cover with plastic sheet to prevent spreading. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. (ERG, 2016)
Protective Clothing
Skin: Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.

Eyes: Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

Wash skin: The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.

Remove: Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.

Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the work shift.

Provide: Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection. Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.] (NIOSH, 2016)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
Tychem® Fabric Legend
QS = Tychem 2000 SFR
QC = Tychem 2000
SL = Tychem 4000
C3 = Tychem 5000
TF = Tychem 6000
TP = Tychem 6000 FR
BR = Tychem 9000
RC = Tychem RESPONDER® CSM
TK = Tychem 10000
RF = Tychem 10000 FR
Testing Details
The fabric permeation data was generated for DuPont by independent testing laboratories using ASTM F739, EN369, EN 374-3, EN ISO 6529 (method A and B) or ASTM D6978 test methods. Normalized breakthrough times (the time at which the permeation rate is equal to 0.1 µg/cm2/min) reported in minutes. All liquid chemicals have been tested between approximately 20°C and 27°C unless otherwise stated. A different temperature may have significant influence on the breakthrough time; permeation rates typically increase with temperature. All chemicals have been tested at a concentration of greater than 95% unless otherwise stated. Unless otherwise stated, permeation was measured for single chemicals. The permeation characteristics of mixtures can deviate considerably from the permeation behavior of the individual chemicals. Chemical warfare agents (Lewisite, Sarin, Soman, Sulfur Mustard, Tabun and VX Nerve Agent) have been tested at 22°C and 50% relative humidity per military standard MIL-STD-282.
Normalized Breakthrough Times (in Minutes)
Chemical CAS Number State QS QC SL C3 TF TP BR RC TK RF
Chloroform (>95%) 67-66-3 Liquid imm. imm. imm. imm. imm. >480 >480 >480 >480
> indicates greater than.
"imm." indicates immediate; having a normalized breakthrough time of 10 minutes or less.

Special Warnings from DuPont

  1. Serged and bound seams are degraded by some hazardous liquid chemicals, such as strong acids, and should not be worn when these chemicals are present.
  2. CAUTION: This information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable. It is subject to revision as additional knowledge and experience are gained. DuPont makes no guarantee of results and assumes no obligation or liability...
    ... in connection with this information. It is the user's responsibility to determine the level of toxicity and the proper personal protective equipment needed. The information set forth herein reflects laboratory performance of fabrics, not complete garments, under controlled conditions. It is intended for informational use by persons having technical skill for evaluation under their specific end-use conditions, at their own discretion and risk. Anyone intending to use this information should first verify that the garment selected is suitable for the intended use. In many cases, seams and closures have shorter breakthrough times and higher permeation rates than the fabric. Please contact DuPont for specific data. If fabric becomes torn, abraded or punctured, or if seams or closures fail, or if attached gloves, visors, etc. are damaged, end user should discontinue use of garment to avoid potential exposure to chemical. Since conditions of use are outside our control, we make no warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, no warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use and assume no liability in connection with any use of this information. This information is not intended as a license to operate under or a recommendation to infringe any patent or technical information of DuPont or others covering any material or its use.

(DuPont, 2018)

First Aid
Signs and Symptoms of Chloroform Exposure: Signs and symptoms of acute exposure to chloroform vapor may include conjunctivitis and blepharospasm (twitching of the eyelid). Burning pain and corneal epithelium injury may occur from chloroform liquid splashed in the eye. Acute exposure may also lead to respiratory depression, chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, metabolic acidosis, central nervous system depression, headache, fatigue, and dizziness. Gastrointestinal signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, salivation, anorexia, and gastrointestinal irritation. Cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest have been reported.

Emergency Life-Support Procedures: Acute exposure to chloroform may require decontamination and life support for the victims. Emergency personnel should wear protective clothing appropriate to the type and degree of contamination. Air-purifying or supplied-air respiratory equipment should also be worn, as necessary. Rescue vehicles should carry supplies such as plastic sheeting and disposable plastic bags to assist in preventing spread of contamination.

Inhalation Exposure:
1. Move victims to fresh air. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to chloroform.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for performance of invasive procedures.
4. Transport to a health care facility.

Dermal/Eye Exposure:
1. Remove victims from exposure. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to chloroform.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing as soon as possible.
4. If eye exposure has occurred, eyes must be flushed with lukewarm water for at least 30 minutes.
5. Wash exposed skin areas thoroughly with water.
6. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for performance of other invasive procedures.
7. Transport to a health care facility.

Ingestion Exposure:
1. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
2. DO NOT induce vomiting.
3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
4. Activated charcoal may be administered if victims are conscious and alert. Use 15 to 30 g (1/2 to 1 oz) for children, 50 to 100 g (1-3/4 to 3-1/2 oz) for adults, with 125 to 250 mL (1/2 to 1 cup) of water.
5. Promote excretion by administering a saline cathartic or sorbitol to conscious and alert victims. Children require 15 to 30 g (1/2 to 1 oz) of cathartic; 50 to 100 g (1-3/4 to 3-1/2 oz) is recommended for adults.
6. Transport to a health care facility. (EPA, 1998)

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • CHCl3
Flash Point: None (EPA, 1998)
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): None (EPA, 1998)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): NoneNone (EPA, 1998)
Autoignition Temperature: Not flammable (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: -82.3 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Pressure: 100 mm Hg at 50.72 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 4.12 (EPA, 1998)
Specific Gravity: 1.4832 at 68 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Boiling Point: 143 ° F at 760 mm Hg (EPA, 1998)
Molecular Weight: 119.39 (EPA, 1998)
Water Solubility: less than 1 mg/mL at 66° F (NTP, 1992)
Ionization Potential: 11.42 eV (NIOSH, 2016)
IDLH: 500 ppm ; A potential occupational carcinogen. (NIOSH, 2016)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

Final AEGLs for Chloroform (67-66-3)
Exposure Period AEGL-1 AEGL-2 AEGL-3
10 minutes NR 120 ppm 4000 ppm
30 minutes NR 80 ppm 4000 ppm
60 minutes NR 64 ppm 3200 ppm
4 hours NR 40 ppm 2000 ppm
8 hours NR 29 ppm 1600 ppm
NR = Not recommended due to insufficient data
(NAC/NRC, 2017)

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

Chemical ERPG-1 ERPG-2 ERPG-3
Chloroform (67-66-3) NA 50 ppm 5000 ppm
NA = not appropriate.
(AIHA, 2016)

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Chloroform (67-66-3) 2 ppm 64 ppm 3200 ppm
(DOE, 2016)

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Chloroform 67-66-3 10000 pounds 10 pounds 10 pounds 313 U044 20000 pounds
Methane, trichloro- 67-66-3 10000 pounds 10 pounds 10 pounds X U044 20000 pounds

(EPA List of Lists, 2015)

DHS Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

RELEASE THEFT SABOTAGE
Chemical of Interest CAS Number Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Chloroform; [Methane, trichloro-] 67-66-3 1.00 % 20000 pounds toxic

(DHS, 2007)

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

No regulatory information available.

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.
  • CHLOROFORM
  • FORMYL TRICHLORIDE
  • FREON 20
  • HCC 20
  • METHANE TRICHLORIDE
  • METHANE, TRICHLORO-
  • METHENYL CHLORIDE
  • METHENYL TRICHLORIDE
  • METHYL TRICHLORIDE
  • NCI-C02686
  • NCI-CO2686
  • R 20
  • R 20 (REFRIGERANT)
  • R 20(REFRIGERANT)
  • R-20
  • TCM
  • TRICHLOROFORM
  • TRICHLOROMETHANE

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