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HYDROGEN SULFIDE

2.3 - Poisonous gas 2.1 - Flammable gas
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The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number
  • 7783-06-4   (HYDROGEN SULFIDE)
DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • Poison Gas
  • Flammable Gas
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
Hydrogen sulfideexternal link
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
4
4 0
Blue Health 4 Can be lethal.
Red Flammability 4 Burns readily. Rapidly or completely vaporizes at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature.
Yellow Instability 0 Normally stable, even under fire conditions.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
A colorless gas having a strong odor of rotten eggs. Boiling point -60.2°C. Shipped as a liquid confined under its own vapor pressure. Density (liquid) 8.3 lb / gal. Contact with the unconfined liquid can cause frostbite by evaporative cooling. Gas is very toxic by inhalation. Fatigues the sense of smell which cannot be counted on to warn of the continued presence of the gas. Prolonged exposure of closed containers to heat may result in their violent rupturing and rocketing.

Rate of onset: Immediate & Delayed

Persistence: Minutes to hours

Odor threshold: 0.1 ppm

Source/use/other hazard: Disinfectant lubricant/oils; interm for HC manufacture; deadens sense of smell.

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
  • Highly Flammable
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable; a flame can very easily flash back to the source of leak.
Fire Hazard
Compound is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to source of ignition and flash back. It forms explosive mixtures with air over a wide range. Also reacts explosively with bromine pentafluoride, chlorine trifluoride, nitrogen triiodide, nitrogen trichloride, oxygen difluoride, and phenyl diazonium chloride. When heated to decomposition, it emits highly toxic fumes of oxides of sulfur. Incompatible with many materials including strong oxidizers, metals, strong nitric acid, bromine pentafluoride, chlorine trifluoride, nitrogen triiodide, nitrogen trichloride, oxygen difluoride and phenyl diazonium chloride. Avoid physical damage to containers; sources of ignition; storage near nitric acid, strong oxidizing materials, and corrosive liquids or gases. (EPA, 1998)
Health Hazard
Exposure to very high concentrations causes immediate death. Also death or permanent injury may occur after very short exposure to small quantities. It acts directly upon the nervous system resulting in paralysis of respiratory centers. (EPA, 1998)
Reactivity Profile
HYDROGEN SULFIDE reacts as an acid and as a reducing agent. Explodes on contact with oxygen difluoride, bromine pentafluoride, chlorine trifluoride, dichlorine oxide, silver fulminate. May ignite and explode when exposed to powdered copper in oxygen [Mertz, V. et al., Ber., 1880, 13, p. 722]. May react similarly with other powdered metals. Ignites on contact with metal oxides and peroxides (barium peroxide, chromium trioxide, copper oxide, lead dioxide, manganese dioxide, nickel oxide, silver oxide, silver dioxide, thallium trioxide, sodium peroxide, mercury oxide, calcium oxide) [Mellor, 1947, vol. 10, p. 129, 141]. Ignites with silver bromate, lead(II) hypochlorite, copper chromate, nitric acid, lead(IV) oxide and rust. May ignite if passed through rusty iron pipes [Mee, A. J., School Sci. Rev., 1940, 22(85), p. 95]. Reacts exothermically with bases. The heat of the reaction with soda lime, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, barium hydroxide may lead to ignition or explosion of the unreacted portion in the presence of air / oxygen [Mellor, 1947, vol. 10, p. 140].
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

No information available.

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 117 [Gases - Toxic - Flammable (Extreme Hazard)]:

IMMEDIATE PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE: Isolate spill or leak area for at least 100 meters (330 feet) in all directions.

SPILL: See ERG Table 1 - Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances on the UN/NA 1053 datasheet.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2020)
Firefighting
Stop flow of gas. Use water to keep fire-exposed containers cool and to protect men effecting the shut-off. Keep unnecessary people away; isolate hazard area and deny entry. Stay upwind; keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering them. Wear positive pressure breathing apparatus and special protective clothing. Evacuate area endangered by gas. Move container from fire area. Stay away from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discoloration on tank due to fire. Cool containers with water using unmanned device until well after the fire is out. Isolate for one-half mile in all directions if tank car or truck is involved in fire.

A very flammable gas. For small fires let burn unless leak can be stopped immediately. For large fires, use water spray, fog or foam. (EPA, 1998)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 117 [Gases - Toxic - Flammable (Extreme Hazard)]:

ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames) from immediate area. All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. Do not direct water at spill or source of leak. If possible, turn leaking containers so that gas escapes rather than liquid. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Isolate area until gas has dispersed. Consider igniting spill or leak to eliminate toxic gas concerns. (ERG, 2020)
Protective Clothing
Excerpt from NIOSH Pocket Guide for Hydrogen sulfideexternal link:

Skin: FROSTBITE - Compressed gases may create low temperatures when they expand rapidly. Leaks and uses that allow rapid expansion may cause a frostbite hazard. Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent the skin from becoming frozen.

Eyes: FROSTBITE - Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact with the liquid that could result in burns or tissue damage from frostbite.

Wash skin: No recommendation is made specifying the need for washing the substance from the skin (either immediately or at the end of the work shift).

Remove: WHEN WET (FLAMMABLE) - Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard (i.e., for liquids with a flash point <100°F).

Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the workshift.

Provide: FROSTBITE WASH - Quick drench facilities and/or eyewash fountains should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is any possibility of exposure to liquids that are extremely cold or rapidly evaporating. (NIOSH, 2022)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
Tychem® Fabric Legend
QS = Tychem 2000 SFR
QC = Tychem 2000
SL = Tychem 4000
C3 = Tychem 5000
TF = Tychem 6000
TP = Tychem 6000 FR
RC = Tychem RESPONDER® CSM
TK = Tychem 10000
RF = Tychem 10000 FR
Testing Details
The fabric permeation data was generated for DuPont by a third party laboratory. Permeation data for industrial chemicals is obtained per ASTM F739. Normalized breakthrough times (the time at which the permeation rate exceeds 0.1 μg/cm2/min) are reported in minutes. All chemicals have been tested between approximately 20°C and 27°C unless otherwise stated. All chemicals have been tested at a concentration of greater than 95% unless otherwise stated. Chemical warfare agents (Lewisite, Sarin, Soman, Sulfur Mustard, Tabun and VX Nerve Agent) have been tested at 22°C and 50% relative humidity per military standard MIL-STD-282. "Breakthrough time" for chemical warfare agents is defined as the time when the cumulative mass which permeated through the fabric exceeds the limit in MIL-STD-282 [either 1.25 or 4.0 μg/cm2].
A Caution from DuPont
This information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable on the date issued. It is subject to revision as additional knowledge and experience are gained. The information reflects laboratory performance of fabrics, not complete garments, under controlled conditions. It is intended for informational use by persons having technical skill for evaluation under their specific end-use conditions, at their own discretion and risk. It is the user's responsibility to determine the level of toxicity and the proper personal protective equipment needed. Anyone intending to use this information should first verify that the garment selected is suitable for the intended use. In many cases, seams and closures have shorter breakthrough times and higher permeation rates than the fabric. If fabric becomes torn,abraded or punctured, or if seams or closures fail, or if attached gloves, visors, etc. are damaged, end user should discontinue use of garment to avoid potential exposure to chemical. Since conditions of use are outside our control, DuPont makes no warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, no warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use and assume no liability in connection with any use of this information. This information is not intended as a license to operate under or a recommendation to infringe any patent, trademark or technical information of DuPont or others covering any material or its use.
Normalized Breakthrough Times (in Minutes)
Chemical CAS Number State QS QC SL C3 TF TP RC TK RF
Hydrogen sulfide 7783-06-4 Vapor imm >480 >480 >480 >480
> indicates greater than.
"imm" indicates immediate; having a normalized breakthrough time of 10 minutes or less.

Special Warning from DuPont: Tychem® and Tyvek® fabrics should not be used around heat, flames, sparks or in potentially flammable or explosive environments. Only...

...Tychem® ThermoPro, Tychem® Reflector® and Tychem® TK styles 600T/601T (with aluminized outer suit) garments are designed and tested to help reduce burn injury during escape from a flash fire. Users of Tychem® ThermoPro, Tychem® Reflector® and Tychem® TK styles 600T/601T (with aluminized outer suit) garments should not knowingly enter an explosive environment. Tychem® garments with attached socks must be worn inside protective outer footwear and are not suitable as outer footwear. These attached socks do not have adequate durability or slip resistance to be worn as the outer foot covering.

(DuPont, 2022)

First Aid
Warning: Caution is advised. Vital signs should be monitored closely.

Signs and Symptoms of Acute Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure: Signs and symptoms of acute exposure to hydrogen sulfide may include tachycardia (rapid heart rate) or bradycardia (slow heart rate), hypotension (low blood pressure), cyanosis (blue tint to skin and mucous membrane), cardiac palpitations, and cardiac arrhythmias. Dyspnea (shortness of breath), tachypnea (rapid respiratory rate), bronchitis, pulmonary edema, respiratory depression, and respiratory paralysis may occur. Neurological effects include giddiness, irritability, drowsiness, weakness, confusion, delirium, amnesia, headache, sweating, and dizziness. Muscle cramping, tremor, excessive salivation, cough, convulsions, and coma may be noted. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea are commonly seen. Exposure to hydrogen sulfide gas may result in skin irritation, lacrimation (tearing), inability to detect odors, photophobia (heightened sensitivity to light), and blurred vision.

Emergency Life-Support Procedures: Acute exposure to hydrogen sulfide may require decontamination and life support for the victims. Emergency personnel should wear protective clothing appropriate to the type and degree of contamination. Air-purifying or supplied-air respiratory equipment should also be worn, as necessary. Rescue vehicles should carry supplies such as plastic sheeting and disposable plastic bags to assist in preventing spread of contamination.

Inhalation Exposure:
1. Move victims to fresh air. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to hydrogen sulfide.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
4. RUSH to a health care facility!

Dermal/Eye Exposure:
1. Remove victims from exposure. Emergency personnel should avoid self- exposure to hydrogen sulfide.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Remove contaminated clothing as soon as possible.
4. If eye exposure has occurred, eyes must be flushed with lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes.
5. Wash exposed skin areas for at least 15 minutes with soap and water.
6. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
7. RUSH to a health care facility!

Ingestion Exposure: No information is available. (EPA, 1998)

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • H2S
Flash Point: data unavailable
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): 4.3 % (EPA, 1998)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): 45 % (EPA, 1998)
Autoignition Temperature: 500°F (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: -121.9°F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Pressure: 15200 mmHg at 77.9°F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 1.19 (EPA, 1998)
Specific Gravity: 0.916 at -76°F (EPA, 1998)
Boiling Point: -76.59°F at 760 mmHg (EPA, 1998)
Molecular Weight: 34.08 (EPA, 1998)
Water Solubility: 0.4 % (NIOSH, 2022)
Ionization Energy/Potential: 10.46 eV (NIOSH, 2022)
IDLH: 100 ppm (NIOSH, 2022)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

Final AEGLs for Hydrogen sulfide (7783-06-4)
Exposure Period AEGL-1 AEGL-2 AEGL-3
10 minutes 0.75 ppm 41 ppm 76 ppm
30 minutes 0.6 ppm 32 ppm 59 ppm
60 minutes 0.51 ppm 27 ppm 50 ppm
4 hours 0.36 ppm 20 ppm 37 ppm
8 hours 0.33 ppm 17 ppm 31 ppm
Level of Odor Awareness = 0.01 ppm
(NAC/NRC, 2022)

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

Chemical ERPG-1 ERPG-2 ERPG-3
Hydrogen Sulfide (7783-06-4) 0.1 ppm star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1. 30 ppm 100 ppm
star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1.
(AIHA, 2020)

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Hydrogen sulfide (7783-06-4) 0.51 ppm 27 ppm 50 ppm LEL = 40000 ppm
(DOE, 2018)

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Hydrogen sulfide 7783-06-4 500 pounds 100 pounds 100 pounds 313 U135 10000 pounds

(EPA List of Lists, 2022)

CISA Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

RELEASE THEFT SABOTAGE
Chemical of Interest CAS Number Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Hydrogen sulfide 7783-06-4 1.00 % 10000 pounds toxic 23.73 % 45 pounds WME

(CISA, 2007)

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

Chemical Name CAS Number Threshold Quantity (TQ)
Hydrogen Sulfide 7783-06-4 1500 pounds

(OSHA, 2019)

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.
  • DIHYDROGEN MONOSULFIDE
  • DIHYDROGEN SULFIDE
  • HYDROGEN SULFIDE
  • HYDROGEN SULFIDE, LIQUEFIED
  • HYDROGEN SULPHIDE
  • HYDROGEN SULPHIDE, LIQUEFIED
  • HYDROSULFURIC ACID
  • SEWER GAS
  • STINK DAMP
  • SULFUR DIHYDRIDE
  • SULFUR HYDRIDE
  • SULFUR HYDRIDE (SH2)
  • SULFURETED HYDROGEN
  • SULFURETTED HYDROGEN
  • SULPHURETTED HYDROGEN

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