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CHLORINE DIOXIDE

5.1 - Oxidizer 6.1 - Poison
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The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number
  • 10049-04-4   (CHLORINE DIOXIDE)
  • 70377-94-5   (hydrate)
DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • Oxidizer
  • Poison
none
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
Chlorine dioxideexternal link
NFPA 704
data unavailable
General Description
Chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen is an orange colored solid, appearing as a block of ice, with a faint odor of chlorine. It may only be shipped in the frozen state and then only by private or contract motor carrier. The melting point of the hydrate is around 30°F. If it should thaw and further warm up, chlorine dioxide gas is given off. The gas is toxic by inhalation. The gas and liquid are violently decomposed by organic materials. The gas will decompose explosively at temperatures below the boiling point of water. It is used to bleach wood pulp, fats and oils; in processing flour, and for water purification.

Chlorine dioxide is a yellow to reddish gas or a red-brown liquid below 52 deg. F. with an unpleasant odor similar to chlorine.

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
  • Explosive
  • Strong Oxidizing Agent
  • Water-Reactive
Air & Water Reactions
Decomposes in water, products likely to include gaseous Cl2 (Lewis 2000). Reacts with water to produce toxic and corrosive fumes of chlorine. Based on a scenario where the chemical is spilled into an excess of water (at least 5 fold excess of water), half of the maximum theoretical yield of Chlorine gas will be created in 0.14 minutes. Experimental details are in the following: "Development of the Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Distances for the 2008 Emergency Response Guidebook", ANL/DIS-09-2, D.F. Brown, H.M. Hartmann, W.A. Freeman, and W.D. Haney, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, June 2009. .
Fire Hazard
Excerpt from ERG Guide 143 [Oxidizers (Unstable)]:

May explode from friction, heat or contamination. These substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard. (ERG, 2016)
Health Hazard
Excerpt from ERG Guide 143 [Oxidizers (Unstable)]:

TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors, dusts or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. Toxic fumes or dust may accumulate in confined areas (basement, tanks, hopper/tank cars, etc.). Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. (ERG, 2016)
Reactivity Profile
CHLORINE DIOXIDE is a powerful oxidizer of low stability. Explodes violently on the slightest provocation as gas or liquid even below -100° C by impact [Sidgwick, 1950, 1203; Stedman, R. F., Chem Eng. News, 1951, 29, p. 5030]. Mixtures with carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, propane, ethylene or butadiene always explode spontaneously. Concentrations of greater than 10% in air are explosive. Severe explosion hazard when heated to 100° C. Sensitive to shock and sunlight. Explodes on contact with mercury, potassium hydroxide, phosphorus, phosphorus pentachloride, sulfur, difluoramine, trifluoramine, sugar. Very sensitive to the presence of any easily oxidized material. These may, even in minute quantities, trigger a decomposition. Materials such as rubber, hydrocarbons, carbon, iron, rust, reactive metals, and organics such as sawdust have all caused problems. [Inorganic Chemistry Handbook]. Emits highly toxic fumes of chlorine gas upon decomposition. Can react violently with fluorine, reducing reagents or finally dispersed organic matter [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 1292].
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

Use caution: Liquids with this reactive group classification have been known to react with the absorbents listed below. More info about absorbents, including situations to watch out for...

  • Cellulose-Based Absorbents
  • Mineral-Based & Clay-Based Absorbents
  • Expanded Polymeric Absorbents
  • Dirt/Earth

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 143 [Oxidizers (Unstable)]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids.

SPILL: See ERG Table 1 - Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances on the UN/NA 9191 datasheet.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2016)
Firefighting
Excerpt from ERG Guide 143 [Oxidizers (Unstable)]:

SMALL FIRE: Use water. Do not use dry chemicals or foams. CO2 or Halon® may provide limited control.

LARGE FIRE: Flood fire area with water from a distance. Do not move cargo or vehicle if cargo has been exposed to heat. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Do not get water inside containers: a violent reaction may occur.

FIRE INVOLVING TANKS OR CAR/TRAILER LOADS: Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Dike fire-control water for later disposal. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. (ERG, 2016)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 143 [Oxidizers (Unstable)]:

Keep combustibles (wood, paper, oil, etc.) away from spilled material. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas.

SMALL SPILL: Flush area with flooding quantities of water.

LARGE SPILL: DO NOT CLEAN-UP OR DISPOSE OF, EXCEPT UNDER SUPERVISION OF A SPECIALIST. (ERG, 2016)
Protective Clothing
Skin: If chemical is in liquid form, wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.

Eyes: If chemical is in liquid form, wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

Wash skin: If the chemical is in liquid form, the worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.

Remove: Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard(i.e. for liquids with flash point < 100°F)

Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the work shift.

Provide: Eyewash fountains should be provided (when chemical is in liquid form) in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection. Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided (when chemical is in liquid form) within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.] (NIOSH, 2016)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
Tychem® Fabric Legend
QS = Tychem 2000 SFR
QC = Tychem 2000
SL = Tychem 4000
C3 = Tychem 5000
TF = Tychem 6000
TP = Tychem 6000 FR
BR = Tychem 9000
RC = Tychem RESPONDER® CSM
TK = Tychem 10000
RF = Tychem 10000 FR
Testing Details
The fabric permeation data was generated for DuPont by independent testing laboratories using ASTM F739, EN369, EN 374-3, EN ISO 6529 (method A and B) or ASTM D6978 test methods. Normalized breakthrough times (the time at which the permeation rate is equal to 0.1 µg/cm2/min) reported in minutes. All liquid chemicals have been tested between approximately 20°C and 27°C unless otherwise stated. A different temperature may have significant influence on the breakthrough time; permeation rates typically increase with temperature. All chemicals have been tested at a concentration of greater than 95% unless otherwise stated. Unless otherwise stated, permeation was measured for single chemicals. The permeation characteristics of mixtures can deviate considerably from the permeation behavior of the individual chemicals. Chemical warfare agents (Lewisite, Sarin, Soman, Sulfur Mustard, Tabun and VX Nerve Agent) have been tested at 22°C and 50% relative humidity per military standard MIL-STD-282.
Normalized Breakthrough Times (in Minutes)
Chemical CAS Number State QS QC SL C3 TF TP BR RC TK RF
Chlorine dioxide (1000 ppm) 10049-04-4 Vapor >480 >480 >480 >480
Chlorine dioxide (150 ppm) 10049-04-4 Vapor >480 >480 >480
> indicates greater than.
A blank cell indicates the fabric has not been tested. The fabric may or may not offer barrier.

Special Warnings from DuPont

  1. Serged and bound seams are degraded by some hazardous liquid chemicals, such as strong acids, and should not be worn when these chemicals are present.
  2. CAUTION: This information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable. It is subject to revision as additional knowledge and experience are gained. DuPont makes no guarantee of results and assumes no obligation or liability...
    ... in connection with this information. It is the user's responsibility to determine the level of toxicity and the proper personal protective equipment needed. The information set forth herein reflects laboratory performance of fabrics, not complete garments, under controlled conditions. It is intended for informational use by persons having technical skill for evaluation under their specific end-use conditions, at their own discretion and risk. Anyone intending to use this information should first verify that the garment selected is suitable for the intended use. In many cases, seams and closures have shorter breakthrough times and higher permeation rates than the fabric. Please contact DuPont for specific data. If fabric becomes torn, abraded or punctured, or if seams or closures fail, or if attached gloves, visors, etc. are damaged, end user should discontinue use of garment to avoid potential exposure to chemical. Since conditions of use are outside our control, we make no warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, no warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use and assume no liability in connection with any use of this information. This information is not intended as a license to operate under or a recommendation to infringe any patent or technical information of DuPont or others covering any material or its use.

(DuPont, 2018)

First Aid
Eye: If this chemical in liquid form contacts the eyes, immediately wash the eyes with large amounts of water, occasionally lifting the lower and upper lids. Get medical attention immediately. Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.

Skin: If this chemical in liquid form contacts the skin, immediately wash the contaminated skin with soap and water. If this chemical penetrates the clothing immediately remove the clothing and wash the skin with soap and water. Get medical attention promptly.

Breathing: If a person breathes large amounts of this chemical, move the exposed person to fresh air at once. If breathing has stopped, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Get medical attention as soon as possible.

Swallow: If this chemical in liquid form has been swallowed, get medical attention immediately. (NIOSH, 2016)

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • ClO2.xH2O, ClO2 (gas)
Flash Point: data unavailable
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): data unavailable
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): data unavailable
Autoignition Temperature: data unavailable
Melting Point: -74 ° F (NIOSH, 2016)
Vapor Pressure: greater than 1 atm (NIOSH, 2016)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): data unavailable
Specific Gravity: 1.6 (Liquid at 32° F) (NIOSH, 2016)
Boiling Point: 52 ° F at 760 mm Hg (NIOSH, 2016)
Molecular Weight: 67.5 (NIOSH, 2016)
Water Solubility: 0.3 % at 77° F (NIOSH, 2016)
Ionization Potential: 10.36 eV (NIOSH, 2016)
IDLH: 5 ppm (NIOSH, 2016)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

Final AEGLs for Chlorine dioxide (10049-04-4)
Exposure Period AEGL-1 AEGL-2 AEGL-3
10 minutes 0.15 ppm 1.4 ppm 3 ppm
30 minutes 0.15 ppm 1.4 ppm 3 ppm
60 minutes 0.15 ppm 1.1 ppm 2.4 ppm
4 hours 0.15 ppm 0.69 ppm 1.5 ppm
8 hours 0.15 ppm 0.45 ppm 0.98 ppm
(NAC/NRC, 2017)

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

Chemical ERPG-1 ERPG-2 ERPG-3
Chlorine Dioxide (10049-04-4) NA 0.5 ppm 3 ppm
NA = not appropriate.
(AIHA, 2016)

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Chlorine dioxide (10049-04-4) 0.15 ppm 1.1 ppm 2.4 ppm
(DOE, 2016)

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Chlorine dioxide 10049-04-4 313 1000 pounds
Chlorine oxide (ClO2) 10049-04-4 X 1000 pounds

(EPA List of Lists, 2015)

DHS Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

RELEASE THEFT SABOTAGE
Chemical of Interest CAS Number Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Chlorine dioxide; [Chlorine oxide, (ClO2)] 10049-04-4 1.00 % 1000 pounds toxic ACG APA sabotage/ contamination

(DHS, 2007)

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

Chemical Name CAS Number Threshold Quantity (TQ)
Chlorine Dioxide 10049-04-4 1000 pounds

(OSHA, 2011)

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.
  • CHLORINE DIOXIDE
  • CHLORINE DIOXIDE HYDRATE, [FROZEN]
  • CHLORINE DIOXIDE, HYDRATE
  • CHLORINE DIOXIDE, HYDRATE, FROZEN
  • CHLORINE OXIDE
  • CHLORINE OXIDE (CLO2)
  • CHLORINE PEROXIDE

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