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1,3-BUTADIENE

2.1 - Flammable gas
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The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number
  • 106-99-0   (1,3-BUTADIENE)
DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • Flammable Gas
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
1,3-Butadieneexternal link
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
4
2 2
Blue Health 2 Can cause temporary incapacitation or residual injury.
Red Flammability 4 Burns readily. Rapidly or completely vaporizes at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature.
Yellow Instability 2 Readily undergoes violent chemical changes at elevated temperatures and pressures.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
Butadiene is a colorless gas with an aromatic odor. It is shipped as a liquefied gas under its vapor pressure. Contact with the liquid can cause frostbite. It is easily ignited. Its vapors are heavier than air and a flame can flash back to the source of leak very easily. It can asphyxiate by the displacement of air. It must be shipped inhibited as butadiene is liable to polymerization. If polymerization occurs in the container, it may violently rupture. Under prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat the containers may rupture violently and rocket. It is used to make synthetic rubber and plastics, and to make other chemicals.

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
  • Highly Flammable
  • Polymerizable
  • Peroxidizable Compound
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. In contact with air, butadiene may form violently explosive peroxides, which can be exploded by mild heat or shock. Solid butadiene absorbs enough oxygen at sub atmospheric pressures to make it explode violently when heated just above its melting point [Ind. Eng. Chem. 51:733 1959].
Fire Hazard
Behavior in Fire: Vapors heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flashback. Containers may explode in a fire due to polymerization. (USCG, 1999)
Health Hazard
Slight anesthetic effect at high concentrations; causes frostbite from skin contact; slight irritation to eyes and nose at high concentrations. (USCG, 1999)
Reactivity Profile
A colorless gas, it can react with oxidizing reagents. Upon long exposure to air it forms explosive peroxides. They are sensitive to heat or shock; sudden polymerization may occur [Scott, D. A., Chem. Eng. News, 1940, 18, p.404]. Butadiene polyperoxides are insoluble in liquefied butadiene (m. p. -113°C, b. p. -2.6°C) and progressively separate leading to local concentration build up. Self-heating from a spontaneous decomposition will lead to explosion [Hendry, D. G. et al., Ind. Eng. Chem., 1968, 7, p. 136, 1145]. Explodes on contact with aluminum tetrahydroborate, potentially explosive reaction with chlorine dioxide (peroxide) and crotonaldehyde (above 180°C). Reaction with sodium nitrite forms a spontaneously flammable product [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 539].
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

Use caution: Liquids with this reactive group classification have been known to react with the absorbents listed below. More info about absorbents, including situations to watch out for...

  • Mineral-Based & Clay-Based Absorbents
  • Dirt/Earth

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 116(P) [Gases - Flammable (Unstable); polymerization hazard]:

IMMEDIATE PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE: Isolate spill or leak area for at least 100 meters (330 feet) in all directions.

LARGE SPILL: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 800 meters (1/2 mile).

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2020)
Firefighting
Excerpt from ERG Guide 116(P) [Gases - Flammable (Unstable); polymerization hazard]:

DO NOT EXTINGUISH A LEAKING GAS FIRE UNLESS LEAK CAN BE STOPPED.

SMALL FIRE: Dry chemical or CO2.

LARGE FIRE: Water spray or fog. If it can be done safely, move undamaged containers away from the area around the fire.

FIRE INVOLVING TANKS: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned master stream devices or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Do not direct water at source of leak or safety devices; icing may occur. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned master stream devices or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. (ERG, 2020)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 116(P) [Gases - Flammable (Unstable); polymerization hazard]:

ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames) from immediate area. All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Do not direct water at spill or source of leak. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. If possible, turn leaking containers so that gas escapes rather than liquid. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Isolate area until gas has dispersed. (ERG, 2020)
Protective Clothing
Excerpt from NIOSH Pocket Guide for 1,3-Butadieneexternal link:

Skin: FROSTBITE - Compressed gases may create low temperatures when they expand rapidly. Leaks and uses that allow rapid expansion may cause a frostbite hazard. Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent the skin from becoming frozen.

Eyes: FROSTBITE - Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact with the liquid that could result in burns or tissue damage from frostbite.

Wash skin: No recommendation is made specifying the need for washing the substance from the skin (either immediately or at the end of the work shift).

Remove: WHEN WET (FLAMMABLE) - Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard (i.e., for liquids with a flash point <100°F).

Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the workshift.

Provide: FROSTBITE WASH - Quick drench facilities and/or eyewash fountains should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is any possibility of exposure to liquids that are extremely cold or rapidly evaporating. (NIOSH, 2022)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
Tychem® Fabric Legend
QS = Tychem 2000 SFR
QC = Tychem 2000
SL = Tychem 4000
C3 = Tychem 5000
TF = Tychem 6000
TP = Tychem 6000 FR
RC = Tychem RESPONDER® CSM
TK = Tychem 10000
RF = Tychem 10000 FR
Testing Details
The fabric permeation data was generated for DuPont by a third party laboratory. Permeation data for industrial chemicals is obtained per ASTM F739. Normalized breakthrough times (the time at which the permeation rate exceeds 0.1 μg/cm2/min) are reported in minutes. All chemicals have been tested between approximately 20°C and 27°C unless otherwise stated. All chemicals have been tested at a concentration of greater than 95% unless otherwise stated. Chemical warfare agents (Lewisite, Sarin, Soman, Sulfur Mustard, Tabun and VX Nerve Agent) have been tested at 22°C and 50% relative humidity per military standard MIL-STD-282. "Breakthrough time" for chemical warfare agents is defined as the time when the cumulative mass which permeated through the fabric exceeds the limit in MIL-STD-282 [either 1.25 or 4.0 μg/cm2].
A Caution from DuPont
This information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable on the date issued. It is subject to revision as additional knowledge and experience are gained. The information reflects laboratory performance of fabrics, not complete garments, under controlled conditions. It is intended for informational use by persons having technical skill for evaluation under their specific end-use conditions, at their own discretion and risk. It is the user's responsibility to determine the level of toxicity and the proper personal protective equipment needed. Anyone intending to use this information should first verify that the garment selected is suitable for the intended use. In many cases, seams and closures have shorter breakthrough times and higher permeation rates than the fabric. If fabric becomes torn,abraded or punctured, or if seams or closures fail, or if attached gloves, visors, etc. are damaged, end user should discontinue use of garment to avoid potential exposure to chemical. Since conditions of use are outside our control, DuPont makes no warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, no warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use and assume no liability in connection with any use of this information. This information is not intended as a license to operate under or a recommendation to infringe any patent, trademark or technical information of DuPont or others covering any material or its use.
Normalized Breakthrough Times (in Minutes)
Chemical CAS Number State QS QC SL C3 TF TP RC TK RF
Butadiene, 1,3- (0°C, liquid) 106-99-0 Liquid >180
Butadiene, 1,3- (gaseous) 106-99-0 Vapor imm >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480
Vinyl ethylene (0°C, liquid) 106-99-0 Liquid >180
Vinyl ethylene (gaseous) 106-99-0 Vapor imm >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480
> indicates greater than.
"imm" indicates immediate; having a normalized breakthrough time of 10 minutes or less.

Special Warning from DuPont: Tychem® and Tyvek® fabrics should not be used around heat, flames, sparks or in potentially flammable or explosive environments. Only...

...Tychem® ThermoPro, Tychem® Reflector® and Tychem® TK styles 600T/601T (with aluminized outer suit) garments are designed and tested to help reduce burn injury during escape from a flash fire. Users of Tychem® ThermoPro, Tychem® Reflector® and Tychem® TK styles 600T/601T (with aluminized outer suit) garments should not knowingly enter an explosive environment. Tychem® garments with attached socks must be worn inside protective outer footwear and are not suitable as outer footwear. These attached socks do not have adequate durability or slip resistance to be worn as the outer foot covering.

(DuPont, 2022)

First Aid
EYES: First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.

SKIN: CAUTION: Exposure of skin to compressed gases may result in freezing of the skin. Treatment for frostbite may be necessary. Remove the victim from the source of contamination. IMMEDIATELY wash affected areas gently with COLD water (and soap, if necessary) while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Dry carefully with clean, soft towels. Call a hospital or poison control center IMMEDIATELY even if no symptoms (such as inflammation or irritation) develop. Be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment after washing the affected area if advised to do so by a physician.

INHALATION: IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used; if not available, use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing.

INGESTION: This compound is a gas, therefore inhalation is the first route of exposure.

OTHER: Since this chemical is a known or suspected carcinogen you should contact a physician for advice regarding the possible long term health effects and potential recommendation for medical monitoring. Recommendations from the physician will depend upon the specific compound, its chemical, physical and toxicity properties, the exposure level, length of exposure, and the route of exposure. (NTP, 1992)

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • C4H6
Flash Point: -105°F (NTP, 1992)
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): 2 % (NTP, 1992)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): 11.5 % (NTP, 1992)
Autoignition Temperature: 788°F (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: -164°F (NTP, 1992)
Vapor Pressure: 1840 mmHg at 70°F ; 760 mmHg at 23.9°F (NTP, 1992)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 1.87 (NTP, 1992)
Specific Gravity: 0.621 at 68°F (USCG, 1999)
Boiling Point: 24.1°F at 760 mmHg (NTP, 1992)
Molecular Weight: 54.09 (NTP, 1992)
Water Solubility: Insoluble (NTP, 1992)
Ionization Energy/Potential: 9.07 eV (NIOSH, 2022)
IDLH: 2000 ppm ; Based on 10% of the lower explosive limit; A potential occupational carcinogen. (NIOSH, 2022)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

Interim AEGLs for 1,3-Butadiene (106-99-0)
Exposure Period AEGL-1 AEGL-2 AEGL-3
10 minutes 670 ppm 6700 ppm 1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. Safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account. 27000 ppm 3-flame icon indicates value is 100% or more of LEL. Extreme safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account.
30 minutes 670 ppm 6700 ppm 1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. Safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account. 27000 ppm 3-flame icon indicates value is 100% or more of LEL. Extreme safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account.
60 minutes 670 ppm 5300 ppm 1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. Safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account. 22000 ppm 3-flame icon indicates value is 100% or more of LEL. Extreme safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account.
4 hours 670 ppm 3400 ppm 1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. Safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account. 14000 ppm 2-flame icon indicates value is 50-99% of LEL. Extreme safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account.
8 hours 670 ppm 2700 ppm 1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. Safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account. 6800 ppm 1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. Safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account.
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) = 20000 ppm
1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. Safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account.
2-flame icon indicates value is 50-99% of LEL. Extreme safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account.
3-flame icon indicates value is 100% or more of LEL. Extreme safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account.
Level of Distinct Odor Awareness (LOA) = 3.7 ppm
(NAC/NRC, 2022)

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

Chemical ERPG-1 ERPG-2 ERPG-3
1,3-Butadiene (106-99-0) 10 ppm star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1. 500 ppm 5000 ppm 1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. LEL = 20000 ppm
star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1.
1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL.
(AIHA, 2020)

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Butadiene, 1,3- (106-99-0) 670 ppm 5300 ppm 1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. 22000 ppm 3-flame icon indicates value is 100% or more of LEL. LEL = 20000 ppm
1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL.
3-flame icon indicates value is 100% or more of LEL.
(DOE, 2018)

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
1,3-Butadiene 106-99-0 10 pounds 313 10000 pounds

(EPA List of Lists, 2022)

CISA Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

RELEASE THEFT SABOTAGE
Chemical of Interest CAS Number Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
1,3-Butadiene 106-99-0 1.00 % 10000 pounds flammable

(CISA, 2007)

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

No regulatory information available.

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.
  • ALPHA,GAMMA-BUTADIENE
  • ALPHA-GAMMA-BUTADIENE
  • BIETHYLENE
  • BIVINYL
  • BUTA-1,3-DIENE
  • BUTADIENE
  • 1,3-BUTADIENE, [STABILIZED]
  • BUTADIENE-1, 3, STABILIZED
  • BUTADIENE-1,3
  • 1,3-BUTADIENE
  • BUTADIENES, STABILIZED
  • DIVINYL
  • ERYTHRENE
  • NCI-C50602
  • PYRROLYLENE
  • VINYL ETHYLENE
  • VINYLETHYLENE

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