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PARAQUAT DICHLORIDE

6.1 - Poison
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The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond, U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number
  • 1910-42-5
DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • Poison
none
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
Paraquat (Paraquat dichloride)external link
NFPA 704
data unavailable
General Description
Colorless to yellow crystalline solid. Used as a contact herbicide and desiccant. (EPA, 1998)

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts, air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
none
Air & Water Reactions
Water soluble.
Fire Hazard
Avoid strong oxidizers. (EPA, 1998)
Health Hazard
Can cause death due to severe injury to the lungs. The lowest lethal oral dose reported in humans is 43 mg/kg. (EPA, 1998)
Reactivity Profile
PARAQUAT DICHLORIDE is stable in acidic media, but unstable in alkaline media. It is photochemically decomposed by UV irradiation in aqueous solutions and is rapidly inactivated by soil. The neat chemical may be sensitive to light. This compound is corrosive to metal and it can react with strong acids, bases, and oxidizing agents. It is hydrolyzed by alkali compounds and it is inactivated by inert clays and anionic surfactants. (NTP, 1992)
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

No information available.

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 151 [Substances - Toxic (Non-combustible)]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids.

SPILL: Increase, in the downwind direction, as necessary, the isolation distance shown above.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2016)
Firefighting
This material is a bipyridilium compound. Procedures for bipyridilium pesticides are as follows. Small fires: dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray, or foam. Large fires: water spray, fog, or foam. Move container from fire area if you can do so without risk. Fight fire from maximum distance. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. (EPA, 1998)
Non-Fire Response
(Non-Specific -- Bipyridilium Pesticide) Keep unnecessary people away; isolate hazard area and deny entry. Stay upwind; keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering them. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing at the site. If water pollution occurs, notify appropriate authorities. Do not touch spilled material; stop leak if you can do so without risk. Use water spray to reduce vapors.

Small spills: absorb with sand or other noncombustible absorbent material and place into containers for later disposal.

Small dry spills: with clean shovel place material into clean, dry container and cover; move containers from spill area.

Large spills: dike far ahead of spill for later disposal. (EPA, 1998)
Protective Clothing
Skin: Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.

Eyes: Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

Wash skin: The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.

Remove: Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.

Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the work shift.

Provide: Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.] (NIOSH, 2016)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
No information available.
First Aid
Warning: Effects occur in two stages, immediate and delayed. Caution is advised. Exposure to paraquat may be fatal; there is no effective antidote.

Signs and Symptoms of Acute Paraquat Exposure: Signs and symptoms of acute exposure to paraquat may be severe and include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. A burning sensation of the mouth and esophagus with possible ulceration may occur following ingestion. Eye exposure may result in corneal opacification (cloudiness). Dermatitis and nail atrophy may occur following dermal contact. Delayed effects include transient reversible liver injury, acute renal failure, and progressive pulmonary fibrosis with associated dyspnea (shortness of breath) and pulmonary edema.

Emergency Life-Support Procedures: Acute exposure to paraquat may require decontamination and life support for the victims. Emergency personnel should wear protective clothing appropriate to the type and degree of contamination. Air-purifying or supplied-air respiratory equipment should also be worn, as necessary. Rescue vehicles should carry supplies such as plastic sheeting and disposable plastic bags to assist in preventing spread of contamination.

Inhalation Exposure:
1. Move victims to fresh air. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to paraquat.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for performance of other invasive procedures.
4. RUSH to a health care facility.

Dermal/Eye Exposure:
1. Remove victims from exposure. Emergency personnel should avoid self- exposure to paraquat.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Remove contaminated clothing as soon as possible.
4. If eye exposure has occurred, eyes must be flushed with lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes.
5. Wash exposed skin areas three times with soap and water.
6. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for performance of other invasive procedures.
7. RUSH to a health care facility.

Ingestion Exposure:
1. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
2. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for performance of other invasive procedures.
3. Vomiting may be induced with syrup of Ipecac. If elapsed time since ingestion of paraquat is unknown or suspected to be greater than 30 minutes, do not induce vomiting and proceed to Step
4.Ipecac should not be administered to children under 6 months of age.Warning: Syrup of Ipecac should be administered only if victims are alert, have an active gag-reflex, and show no signs of impending seizure or coma. If ANY uncertainty exists, proceed to Step
4.The following dosages of Ipecac are recommended: children up to 1 year old, 10 mL (1/3 oz); children 1 to 12 years old, 15 mL (1/2 oz); adults, 30 mL (1 oz). Ambulate (walk) the victims and give large quantities of water. If vomiting has not occurred after 15 minutes, Ipecac may be readministered. Continue to ambulate and give water to the victims. If vomiting has not occurred within 15 minutes after second administration of Ipecac, administer activated charcoal.
4. Activated charcoal may be administered if victims are conscious and alert. Use 15 to 30 g (1/2 to 1 oz) for children, 50 to 100 g (1-3/4 to 3-1/2 oz) for adults, with 125 to 250 mL (1/2 to 1 cup) of water.
5. Promote excretion by administering a saline cathartic or sorbitol to conscious and alert victims. Children require 15 to 30 g (1/2 to 1 oz) of cathartic; 50 to 100 g (1-3/4 to 3-1/2 oz) is recommended for adults.
6. RUSH to a health care facility. (EPA, 1998)

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • C12H14N2.2Cl
Flash Point: data unavailable
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): data unavailable
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): data unavailable
Autoignition Temperature: data unavailable
Melting Point: Decomposes 572° F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Pressure: Approximately 0 (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): data unavailable
Specific Gravity: 1.24 to 1.26 at 68 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Boiling Point: Decomposes (NIOSH, 2016)
Molecular Weight: 257.18 (EPA, 1998)
Water Solubility: greater than or equal to 100 mg/mL at 66° F (NTP, 1992)
Ionization Potential: data unavailable
IDLH: 1 mg/m3 (NIOSH, 2016)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

No AEGL information available.

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

No ERPG information available.

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Paraquat dichloride (1910-42-5) 0.15 mg/m3 1.6 mg/m3 9.6 mg/m3
(DOE, 2016)

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Paraquat dichloride 1910-42-5 10/10000 pounds 10 pounds 313

(EPA List of Lists, 2015)

DHS Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

No regulatory information available.

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

No regulatory information available.

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.
  • AH 501
  • 4,4'-BIPYRIDINIUM, 1,1'-DIMETHYL-, DICHLORIDE
  • BIPYRIDINIUM, 1,1'-DIMETHYL-4,4'-, DICHLORIDE
  • CEKUQUAT
  • CRISQUAT
  • DEXTRONE-X
  • DEXURON
  • DIMETHYL VIOLOGEN CHLORIDE
  • 1,1'-DIMETHYL-4,4'-BIPYRIDINIUM DICHLORIDE
  • 1,1'-DIMETHYL-4,4'-BIPYRIDYNIUM DICHLORIDE
  • 1,1'-DIMETHYL-4,4'-DIPYRIDINIUM DICHLORIDE
  • 1,1'-DIMETHYL-4,4'-DIPYRIDYLIUM CHLORIDE
  • 1,1'-DIMETHYL-4,4'-DIPYRIDYLIUM DICHLORIDE
  • 1,1'-DIMETHYL-4,4-BIPYRIDINIUM DICHLORIDE
  • 4,4'-DIMETHYLDIPYRIDYL DICHLORIDE
  • ESGRAM
  • GALOKSON
  • GRAMIXEL
  • GRAMONOL
  • GRAMOXONE
  • GRAMOXONE D
  • GRAMOXONE DICHLORIDE
  • GRAMOXONE S
  • GRAMOXONE W
  • GRAMURON
  • METHYL VIOLOGEN
  • METHYL VIOLOGEN DICHLORIDE
  • METHYL VIOLOGEN DICHLORIDE HYDRATE
  • METHYL VIOLOGEN DICHLORIDE TRIHYDRATE
  • METHYL VIOLOGEN(REDUCED)
  • METHYLVIOLOGEN
  • METHYLVIOLOGEN CHLORIDE
  • N,N'-DIMETHYL-4,4'- BIPYRIDYNIUM DICHLORIDE
  • N,N'-DIMETHYL-4,4'-BIPYRIDINIUM DICHLORIDE
  • N,N'-DIMETHYL-4,4'-BIPYRIDYLIUM DICHLORIDE
  • N,N'-DIMETHYL-4,4'-DIPYRIDYLIUM DICHLORIDE
  • OK 622
  • ORTHO PARAQUAT CL
  • PARA-COL
  • PARAGREEN A
  • PARAQUAT
  • PARAQUAT (PARAQUAT DICHLORIDE)
  • PARAQUAT CHLORIDE
  • PARAQUAT CL
  • PARAQUAT DICHLORIDE
  • PARAQUAT, DICHLORIDE
  • PATHCLEAR
  • PILLAQUAT
  • PILLARXONE
  • TERRAKLENE
  • TOTACOL
  • TOXER TOTAL
  • VIOLOGEN, METHYL-
  • WEEDOL

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