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SULFURIC ACID

8 - Corrosive
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The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number
  • 7664-93-9
DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • Corrosive
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
Sulfuric acidexternal link
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
0
3 2
W
Blue Health 3 Can cause serious or permanent injury.
Red Flammability 0 Will not burn under typical fire conditions.
Yellow Instability 2 Readily undergoes violent chemical changes at elevated temperatures and pressures.
White Special W Reacts violently or explosively with water.
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
Sulfuric acid is a colorless oily liquid. It is soluble in water with release of heat. It is corrosive to metals and tissue. It will char wood and most other organic matter on contact, but is unlikely to cause a fire. Density 15 lb / gal. Long term exposure to low concentrations or short term exposure to high concentrations can result in adverse health effects from inhalation. It is used to make fertilizers and other chemicals, in petroleum refining, in iron and steel production, and for many other uses.

Rate of onset: Immediate

Persistence: Hours, days

Odor threshold:

Source/use/other hazard: Battery/dyes/paper/glue/metals industries; volcanic gas; toxic fumes when heated.

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
  • Strong Oxidizing Agent
  • Known Catalytic Activity
  • Water-Reactive
Air & Water Reactions
Reaction with water is negligible unless acid strength is above 80-90% then heat from hydrolysis is extreme, may cause severe burns [Merck, 11th ed. 1989]. During sulfonation of mononitrobenzene by fuming sulfuric acid, a leak from an internal cooling coil permitted water to enter the reaction tank. A violent eruption occurred due to the heat of solution [MCA Case History 944 1963].
Fire Hazard
It is highly reactive and capable of igniting finely-divided combustible materials on contact. When heated, it emits highly toxic fumes. Avoid heat; water and organic materials. Sulfuric acid is explosive or incompatible with an enormous array of substances. Can undergo violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressure. May react violently with water. When heated, it emits highly toxic fumes. Hazardous polymerization may not occur. (EPA, 1998)
Health Hazard
Corrosive to all body tissues. Inhalation of vapor may cause serious lung damage. Contact with eyes may result in total loss of vision. Skin contact may produce severe necrosis. Fatal amount for adult: between 1 teaspoonful and one-half ounce of the concentrated chemical. Even a few drops may be fatal if the acid gains access to the trachea. Chronic exposure may cause tracheobronchitis, stomatitis, conjunctivitis, and gastritis. Gastric perforation and peritonitis may occur and may be followed by circulatory collapse. Circulatory shock is often the immediate cause of death. Those with chronic respiratory, gastrointestinal, or nervous diseases and any eye and skin diseases are at greater risk. (EPA, 1998)
Reactivity Profile
SULFURIC ACID is strongly acidic. Reacts violently with bromine pentafluoride [Mellor 2 Supp. 1:172 1956]. Exploded with para-nitrotoluene at 80°C [Chem. Eng. News 27:2504]. An explosion occurred when concentrated sulfuric acid was mixed with crystalline potassium permanganate in a vessel containing moisture. Manganese heptoxide was formed, which explodes at 70°C [Delhez 1967]. A mixture of acrylonitrile with concentrated sulfuric acid must be kept well chilled, otherwise a vigorous exothermic reaction occurs [Chem. Safety Data Sheet SD-31:8. 1949]. Mixing sulfuric acid (96%) in equal portions with any of the following substances in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase: acetonitrile, acrolein, 2-aminoethanol, ammonium hydroxide (28%), aniline, n-butyraldehyde, chlorosulfonic acid, ethylene diamine, ethyleneimine, epichlorohydrin, ethylene cyanohydrin, hydrochloric acid (36%), hydrofluoric acid (48.7%), propiolactone, propylene oxide, sodium hydroxide, styrene monomer [NFPA 1991]. Sulfuric acid (concentrated) is extremely hazardous in contact with carbides, bromates, chlorates, fulminates, picrates, and powdered metals [Haz. Chem. Data 1966]. Allyl chloride may polymerize violently under conditions involving an acid catalyst, such as sulfuric acid [Ventrone 1971]. React exothermically with sodium hypochlorite to produce chlorine gas. Mixing chlorosulfuric acid and 98% sulfuric acid may evolve HCl [Subref: Anon, Loss Prev. Bull. 1977, (013), 2-3]. Zinc iodide reacts violently with H2SO4. (Pascal, 1962, Vol. 5, 168).
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

Use caution: Liquids with this reactive group classification have been known to react with the absorbents listed below. More info about absorbents, including situations to watch out for...

  • Cellulose-Based Absorbents
  • Expanded Polymeric Absorbents

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 137 [Substances - Water-Reactive - Corrosive]:

IMMEDIATE PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE: Isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids.

SPILL: Increase the immediate precautionary measure distance, in the downwind direction, as necessary.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2020)
Firefighting
Fight fire from safe distance or from protected location. Use care as water applied directly to this acid results in evolution of heat and causes spattering. Cool containers that are exposed to flames with streams of water until fire is out. Wear positive pressure breathing apparatus and special protective clothing.

Not flammable. For small fires use dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Use water on combustibles burning in vicinity of this material. For large fires flood fire area with water from a distance. Do not get solid streams of water on material. Move container from area if you can do so without risk. (EPA, 1998)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 137 [Substances - Water-Reactive - Corrosive]:

Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Use water spray to reduce vapors; do not put water directly on leak, spill area or inside container. Keep combustibles (wood, paper, oil, etc.) away from spilled material.

SMALL SPILL: Cover with DRY earth, DRY sand or other non-combustible material followed with plastic sheet to minimize spreading or contact with rain. Use clean, non-sparking tools to collect material and place it into loosely covered plastic containers for later disposal. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. (ERG, 2020)
Protective Clothing
Excerpt from NIOSH Pocket Guide for Sulfuric acidexternal link:

Skin: PREVENT SKIN CONTACT - Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.

Eyes: PREVENT EYE CONTACT - Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

Wash skin: WHEN CONTAMINATED - The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.

Remove: WHEN WET OR CONTAMINATED - Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.

Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the workshift.

Provide:
• EYEWASH (>1%) - Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substances; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection. (>1%)
• QUICK DRENCH (>1%) - Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.] (>1%) (NIOSH, 2022)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
Tychem® Fabric Legend
QS = Tychem 2000 SFR
QC = Tychem 2000
SL = Tychem 4000
C3 = Tychem 5000
TF = Tychem 6000
TP = Tychem 6000 FR
RC = Tychem RESPONDER® CSM
TK = Tychem 10000
RF = Tychem 10000 FR
Testing Details
The fabric permeation data was generated for DuPont by a third party laboratory. Permeation data for industrial chemicals is obtained per ASTM F739. Normalized breakthrough times (the time at which the permeation rate exceeds 0.1 μg/cm2/min) are reported in minutes. All chemicals have been tested between approximately 20°C and 27°C unless otherwise stated. All chemicals have been tested at a concentration of greater than 95% unless otherwise stated. Chemical warfare agents (Lewisite, Sarin, Soman, Sulfur Mustard, Tabun and VX Nerve Agent) have been tested at 22°C and 50% relative humidity per military standard MIL-STD-282. "Breakthrough time" for chemical warfare agents is defined as the time when the cumulative mass which permeated through the fabric exceeds the limit in MIL-STD-282 [either 1.25 or 4.0 μg/cm2].
A Caution from DuPont
This information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable on the date issued. It is subject to revision as additional knowledge and experience are gained. The information reflects laboratory performance of fabrics, not complete garments, under controlled conditions. It is intended for informational use by persons having technical skill for evaluation under their specific end-use conditions, at their own discretion and risk. It is the user's responsibility to determine the level of toxicity and the proper personal protective equipment needed. Anyone intending to use this information should first verify that the garment selected is suitable for the intended use. In many cases, seams and closures have shorter breakthrough times and higher permeation rates than the fabric. If fabric becomes torn,abraded or punctured, or if seams or closures fail, or if attached gloves, visors, etc. are damaged, end user should discontinue use of garment to avoid potential exposure to chemical. Since conditions of use are outside our control, DuPont makes no warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, no warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use and assume no liability in connection with any use of this information. This information is not intended as a license to operate under or a recommendation to infringe any patent, trademark or technical information of DuPont or others covering any material or its use.
Normalized Breakthrough Times (in Minutes)
Chemical CAS Number State QS QC SL C3 TF TP RC TK RF
Sulfuric acid (30%) 7664-93-9 Liquid >480
Sulfuric acid (50%) 7664-93-9 Liquid >480
Sulfuric acid (70%) 7664-93-9 Liquid >480
Sulfuric acid (98% at 50°C) 7664-93-9 Liquid >480
Sulfuric acid (>95%) 7664-93-9 Liquid >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 50 >480 >480 >480
> indicates greater than.

Special Warning from DuPont: Tychem® and Tyvek® fabrics should not be used around heat, flames, sparks or in potentially flammable or explosive environments. Only...

...Tychem® ThermoPro, Tychem® Reflector® and Tychem® TK styles 600T/601T (with aluminized outer suit) garments are designed and tested to help reduce burn injury during escape from a flash fire. Users of Tychem® ThermoPro, Tychem® Reflector® and Tychem® TK styles 600T/601T (with aluminized outer suit) garments should not knowingly enter an explosive environment. Tychem® garments with attached socks must be worn inside protective outer footwear and are not suitable as outer footwear. These attached socks do not have adequate durability or slip resistance to be worn as the outer foot covering.

(DuPont, 2022)

First Aid
Caution: Sulfuric acid is extremely corrosive. Caution is advised.

Signs and Symptoms of Acute Sulfuric Acid Exposure: Signs and symptoms of acute ingestion of sulfuric acid may be severe and include salivation, intense thirst, difficulty in swallowing, pain, and shock. Oral, esophageal, and stomach burns are common. Vomitus generally has a coffee-ground appearance. The potential for circulatory collapse is high following ingestion of sulfuric acid. Acute inhalation exposure may result in sneezing, hoarseness, choking, laryngitis, dyspnea (shortness of breath), respiratory tract irritation, and chest pain. Bleeding of nose and gums, ulceration of the nasal and oral mucosa, pulmonary edema, chronic bronchitis, and pneumonia may also occur. If the eyes have come in contact with sulfuric acid, irritation, pain, swelling, corneal erosion, and blindness may result. Dermal exposure may result in severe burns, pain, and dermatitis (red, inflamed skin).

Emergency Life-Support Procedures: Acute exposure to sulfuric acid may require decontamination and life support for the victims. Emergency personnel should wear protective clothing appropriate to the type and degree of contamination. Air-purifying or supplied-air respiratory equipment should also be worn, as necessary. Rescue vehicles should carry supplies such as plastic sheeting and disposable plastic bags to assist in preventing spread of contamination.

Inhalation Exposure:
1. Move victims to fresh air. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to sulfuric acid.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
4. RUSH to a health care facility.

Dermal/Eye Exposure:
1. Remove victims from exposure. Emergency personnel should avoid self- exposure to sulfuric acid.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Remove contaminated clothing as soon as possible.
4. If eye exposure has occurred, eyes must be flushed with lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes.
5. Wash exposed skin areas THOROUGHLY with soap and water.
6. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
7. RUSH to a health care facility.

Ingestion Exposure:
1. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
2. Rinse mouth with large amounts of water. Instruct victims not to swallow the water.
3. DO NOT induce vomiting or attempt to neutralize!
4. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
5. Activated charcoal is of no value.
6. Give the victims water or milk: children up to 1 year old, 125 mL (4 oz or 1/2 cup); children 1 to 12 years old, 200 mL (6 oz or 3/4 cup); adults, 250 mL (8 oz or 1 cup). Water or milk should be given only if victims are conscious and alert.
7. RUSH to a health care facility. (EPA, 1998)

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • H2SO4
Flash Point: data unavailable
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): data unavailable
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): data unavailable
Autoignition Temperature: Not flammable (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: 50.65°F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Pressure: 1 mmHg at 294.8°F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 3.4 (EPA, 1998)
Specific Gravity: 1.841 (EPA, 1998)
Boiling Point: 554°F at 760 mmHg (EPA, 1998)
Molecular Weight: 98.08 (EPA, 1998)
Water Solubility: Miscible (NIOSH, 2022)
Ionization Energy/Potential: data unavailable
IDLH: 15 mg/m3 (NIOSH, 2022)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

Interim AEGLs for Sulfuric acid (7664-93-9)
Exposure Period AEGL-1 AEGL-2 AEGL-3
10 minutes 0.2 mg/m3 8.7 mg/m3 270 mg/m3
30 minutes 0.2 mg/m3 8.7 mg/m3 200 mg/m3
60 minutes 0.2 mg/m3 8.7 mg/m3 160 mg/m3
4 hours 0.2 mg/m3 8.7 mg/m3 110 mg/m3
8 hours 0.2 mg/m3 8.7 mg/m3 93 mg/m3
(NAC/NRC, 2022)

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

Chemical ERPG-1 ERPG-2 ERPG-3
Sulfuric Acid (Oleum [8014-95-7], Sulfur Trioxide [7446-11-9], and Sulfuric Acid [7664-93-9]) 2 mg/m3 star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1. 10 mg/m3 120 mg/m3
star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1.
(AIHA, 2020)

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Sulfuric acid (7664-93-9) 0.2 mg/m3 8.7 mg/m3 160 mg/m3
(DOE, 2018)

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Sulfuric acid 7664-93-9 1000 pounds 1000 pounds 1000 pounds
Sulfuric acid (aerosol forms only) 7664-93-9 1000 pounds 1000 pounds 1000 pounds 313

(EPA List of Lists, 2022)

CISA Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

No regulatory information available.

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

No regulatory information available.

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.
  • BATTERY ACID
  • BOV
  • CHAMBER ACID
  • CONTACT ACID
  • DIHYDROGEN SULFATE
  • DIPPING ACID
  • FERTILIZER ACID
  • HYDROGEN SULFATE
  • MATTING ACID
  • NORDHAUSEN ACID
  • OIL OF VITRIOL
  • SPENT SULFURIC ACID
  • SPIRIT OF SULFUR
  • SULFURIC ACID
  • SULFURIC ACID (AEROSOL FORMS ONLY)
  • SULFURIC ACID (AQUEOUS)
  • SULFURIC ACID, WITH MORE THAN 51% ACID
  • SULPHURIC ACID
  • SULPHURIC ACID, WITH MORE THAN 51% ACID
  • VITRIOL BROWN OIL

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