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GLYOXAL

6.1 - Poison
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The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number
  • 107-22-2   (GLYOXAL)
DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • Poison
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
none
NFPA 704
data unavailable
General Description
Yellow crystals melting at15°C. Hence often encountered as a light yellow liquid with a weak sour odor. Vapor has a green color and burns with a violet flame.

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
  • Polymerizable
  • Water-Reactive
Air & Water Reactions
Mixtures with air may explode. Polymerizes quickly on standing, or on contact with a trace of water (possibly a violent reaction), or when dissolved in solvents containing water, [Merck, 502(1968)]. Soluble in water. An aqueous solution contains mono molecular glyoxal. [Hawley]
Fire Hazard
Behavior in Fire: Heat may cause polymerization to a combustible, viscous material. (USCG, 1999)
Health Hazard
Inhalation causes some irritation of nose and,40% solution throat. Contact with liquid,40% solution irritates eyes and causes mild irritation of skin; stains skin yellow. (No information available on symptoms of ingestion.) (USCG, 1999)
Reactivity Profile
GLYOXAL reacts vigorously with strong oxidizing agents such as nitric acid. Polymerizes rapidly even at low temperature if anhydrous [Noller]. Aqueous solutions are more stable but also polymerize on standing. Reacts with itself in the presence of base to give glyconates. Undergoes addition and condensation reactions that may be exothermic with amines, amides, aldehydes, and hydroxide-containing materials. Mixing in equal molar portions with any of the following substances in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase: chlorosulfonic acid, oleum, ethyleneimine, nitric acid, sodium hydroxide [NFPA 1991].
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

Use caution: Liquids with this reactive group classification have been known to react with the absorbents listed below. More info about absorbents, including situations to watch out for...

  • Cellulose-Based Absorbents
  • Mineral-Based & Clay-Based Absorbents
  • Dirt/Earth

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 153 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Combustible)]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids.

SPILL: Increase, in the downwind direction, as necessary, the isolation distance shown above.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2016)
Firefighting
Fires involving this material can be controlled with a dry chemical, carbon dioxide or Halon extinguisher. (NTP, 1992)
Non-Fire Response
SMALL SPILLS AND LEAKAGE: If you should spill this chemical, use absorbent paper to pick up all liquid spill material. Seal the absorbent paper, as well as any of your clothing which may be contaminated, in a vapor-tight plastic bag for eventual disposal. Wash any surfaces you may have contaminated with a soap and water solution. Do not reenter the contaminated area until the Safety Officer (or other responsible person) has verified that the area has been properly cleaned.

STORAGE PRECAUTIONS: You should keep this material in a tightly closed container under an inert atmosphere, and store it at ambient temperatures. (NTP, 1992)
Protective Clothing
Goggles or face shield,40% solution; rubber gloves (USCG, 1999)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
No information available.
First Aid
EYES: First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.

SKIN: IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop, IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment.

INHALATION: IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. If symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop, call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used; if not available, use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing.

INGESTION: DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Volatile chemicals have a high risk of being aspirated into the victim's lungs during vomiting which increases the medical problems. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. (NTP, 1992)

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • C2H2O2
Flash Point: 428 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): data unavailable
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): data unavailable
Autoignition Temperature: 545 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Melting Point: 59 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Vapor Pressure: 18 mm Hg at 68 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): greater than 1.0 (NTP, 1992)
Specific Gravity: 1.29 at 68 ° F (liquid,40% solution) (USCG, 1999)
Boiling Point: 124 ° F at 776 mm Hg (NTP, 1992)
Molecular Weight: 58.04 (NTP, 1992)
Water Solubility: greater than or equal to 100 mg/mL at 72° F (NTP, 1992)
Ionization Potential: data unavailable
IDLH: data unavailable

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

No AEGL information available.

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

No ERPG information available.

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Glyoxal; (Ethanedione, 1, 2-) (107-22-2) 0.3 mg/m3 46 mg/m3 280 mg/m3
(DOE, 2016)

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

No regulatory information available.

DHS Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

No regulatory information available.

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

No regulatory information available.

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.
  • AEROTEX GLYOXAL 40
  • BIFORMAL
  • BIFORMYL
  • DAICEL GY 60
  • DIFORMAL
  • DIFORMYL
  • ETHANDIAL
  • ETHANEDIAL
  • ETHANEDIOL
  • ETHANEDIONE
  • 1,2-ETHANEDIONE
  • GLYFIX CS 50
  • GLYOXAL
  • GLYOXAL ALDEHYDE
  • GLYOXAL, 40% SOLUTION
  • GLYOXYLALDEHYDE
  • GOHSEZAL P
  • OXAL
  • OXALALDEHYDE
  • OXALDEHYDE
  • PERMAFRESH 114

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