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BETA-PROPIOLACTONE

6.1 - Poison
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The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number
  • 57-57-8   (BETA-PROPIOLACTONE)
DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • Poison
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
beta-Propiolactoneexternal link
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
2
0 0
Blue Health 0 No hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material.
Red Flammability 2 Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
Yellow Instability 0 Normally stable, even under fire conditions.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
A colorless liquid with a slightly sweetish, pungent odor. Used as an intermediate in organic synthesis; disinfectant, sterilant for blood plasma, tissue grafts, vaccines, enzymes and surgical instruments. (EPA, 1998)

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
none
Air & Water Reactions
Slow reaction with water to form beta- hydroxypropionic acid.
Fire Hazard
Containers may explode. When heated to decomposition, it emits acrid smoke and fumes. Stable when stored at 41F. Avoid storing in areas of exposure to the direct rays of the sun and in areas of high fire hazard. Tends to polymerize on storage. Avoid elevated temperatures. (EPA, 1998)
Health Hazard
The toxicity potential of this material via inhalation or ingestion is high; may cause death or permanent injury after very short exposures to small quantities. It is a carcinogen. (EPA, 1998)
Reactivity Profile
BETA-PROPIOLACTONE is an ester. Esters react with acids to liberate heat along with alcohols and acids. Strong oxidizing acids may cause a vigorous reaction that is sufficiently exothermic to ignite the reaction products. Heat is also generated by the interaction of esters with caustic solutions. Flammable hydrogen is generated by mixing esters with alkali metals and hydrides. This chemical may be incompatible with alkalis.
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

No information available.

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 153 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Combustible)]:

IMMEDIATE PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE: Isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids.

SPILL: Increase the immediate precautionary measure distance, in the downwind direction, as necessary.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2020)
Firefighting
Wear air mask, goggles or face shield, rubber gloves, and protective clothing to prevent all skin contact. Cool exposed containers with water.

Extinguish with alcohol foam, water, dry chemical, foam, or carbon dioxide. (EPA, 1998)
Non-Fire Response
Avoid contact with liquid. Keep people away. Stop discharge. Avoid inhalation. (EPA, 1998)
Protective Clothing
Excerpt from NIOSH Pocket Guide for beta-Propiolactoneexternal link:

Skin: PREVENT SKIN CONTACT - Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.

Eyes: PREVENT EYE CONTACT - Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

Wash skin:
• WHEN CONTAMINATED - The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
• DAILY - The worker should wash daily at the end of each work shift, and prior to eating, drinking, smoking, etc.

Remove: WHEN WET OR CONTAMINATED - Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.

Change: DAILY - Workers whose clothing may have become contaminated should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises.

Provide:
• EYEWASH - Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substances; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
• QUICK DRENCH - Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.] (NIOSH, 2022)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
No information available.
First Aid
Warning: Propiolactone, beta- is an animal carcinogen. Toxicity potential via inhalation and ingestion is high. May cause death or permanent injury after very short exposures to small quantities. Propiolactone, Beta- also is an irritant; effects may be delayed.

Signs and Symptoms of Propiolactone, Beta- Exposure: Acute exposure to propiolactone, beta- may include irritation to skin, eyes, mouth, esophagus, GI tract, and respiratory tract. Liver and kidney injury, dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing), and convulsions may also be noted.

Emergency Life-Support Procedures: Acute exposure to propiolactone, beta- may require decontamination and life support for the victims. Emergency personnel should wear protective clothing appropriate to the type and degree of contamination. Air-purifying or supplied-air respiratory equipment should also be worn, as necessary. Rescue vehicles should carry supplies such as plastic sheeting and disposable plastic bags to assist in preventing spread of contamination.

Inhalation Exposure:
1. Move victims to fresh air. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to propiolactone, beta-.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer 100% humidified oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for performance of other invasive procedures.
4. Rush to a health care facility.

Dermal/Eye Exposure:
1. Remove victims from exposure. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to propiolactone, beta-.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer 100% humidified oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Remove contaminated clothing as soon as possible.
4. If eye exposure has occurred, eyes must be flushed with lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes.
5. Wash exposed skin thoroughly with soap and water.
6. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for performance of other invasive procedures.
7. Rush to a health care facility.

Ingestion Exposure:
1. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer 100% humidified oxygen or other respiratory support.
2. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
3. DO NOT induce vomiting.
4. Following ingestion, immediately dilute with 4 to 8 ounces (120 to 140 mL) of milk or water not to exceed 15 mL/kg in a child).
5. Rush to a health care facility. (EPA, 1998)

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • C3H4O2
Flash Point: 158°F (EPA, 1998)
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): 2.9 % (EPA, 1998)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): data unavailable
Autoignition Temperature: data unavailable
Melting Point: -27°F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Pressure: 3.4 mmHg at 77°F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 2.5 (NTP, 1992)
Specific Gravity: 1.146 at 68°F (EPA, 1998)
Boiling Point: 324°F at 760 mmHg decomposes (EPA, 1998)
Molecular Weight: 72.06 (EPA, 1998)
Water Solubility: 10 to 50 mg/mL at 66°F (NTP, 1992)
Ionization Energy/Potential: data unavailable
IDLH: A potential occupational carcinogen. (NIOSH, 2022)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

No AEGL information available.

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

No ERPG information available.

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Propiolactone, b- (57-57-8) 1.5 ppm 5 ppm 30 ppm LEL = 29000 ppm
(DOE, 2018)

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
beta-Propiolactone 57-57-8 500 pounds 10 pounds 10 pounds 313

(EPA List of Lists, 2022)

CISA Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

No regulatory information available.

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

No regulatory information available.

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.
  • BETA-LACTONE
  • BETA-PROPIOLACTONE
  • BETA-PROPIONOLACTONE
  • BETA-PROPROLACTONE
  • BETAPRONE
  • BETRAPRONE
  • BPL
  • HYDRACRYLIC ACID BETA-LACTONE
  • HYDRACRYLIC ACID, BETA LACTONE
  • HYDRACRYLIC ACID, BETA-LACTONE
  • HYDROACRYLIC ACID, BETA-LACTONE
  • 3-HYDROXY-BETA-LACTONE
  • 3-HYDROXY-PROPIONIC ACID
  • 3-HYDROXYPROPIONIC ACID BETA-LACTONE
  • 3-HYDROXYPROPIONIC ACID LACTONE
  • 3-HYDROXYPROPIONIC ACID, BETA-LACTONE
  • NSC-21626
  • OXETAN-2-ONE
  • 2-OXETANONE
  • PROPANILIDE
  • PROPANOIC ACID, 3-HYDROXY-, BETA-LACTONE
  • PROPANOIC ACID, 3-HYDROXY-,BETA-LACTONE
  • PROPANOLIDE
  • 3-PROPANOLIDE
  • 3-PROPIOLACETONE
  • PROPIOLACTONE
  • PROPIOLACTONE, BETA-
  • 1,3-PROPIOLACTONE
  • 3-PROPIOLACTONE
  • PROPIONIC ACID 3-HYDROXY-BETA-LACTONE
  • PROPIONIC ACID, 3-HYDROXY-, BETA-LACTONE

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