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ISOBUTANE

2.1 - Flammable gas
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The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number
  • 75-28-5   (ISOBUTANE)
DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • Flammable Gas
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
Isobutaneexternal link
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
4
0 0
Blue Health 0 No hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material.
Red Flammability 4 Burns readily. Rapidly or completely vaporizes at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature.
Yellow Instability 0 Normally stable, even under fire conditions.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
Isobutane is a colorless gas with a faint petroleum-like odor. It is shipped as a liquefied gas under its vapor pressure. Contact with the liquid can cause frostbite. It is easily ignited. The vapors are heavier than air. Any leak can either be liquid or vapor. It can asphyxiate by the displacement of air. Under prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat the containers may rupture violently and rocket.

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
  • Highly Flammable
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable.
Fire Hazard
Excerpt from ERG Guide 115 [Gases - Flammable (Including Refrigerated Liquids)]:

EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE. Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Will form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along ground. CAUTION: Hydrogen (UN1049), Deuterium (UN1957), Hydrogen, refrigerated liquid (UN1966), Methane (UN1971) and Hydrogen and Methane mixture, compressed (UN2034) are lighter than air and will rise. Hydrogen and Deuterium fires are difficult to detect since they burn with an invisible flame. Use an alternate method of detection (thermal camera, broom handle, etc.) Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Cylinders exposed to fire may vent and release flammable gas through pressure relief devices. Containers may explode when heated. Ruptured cylinders may rocket. (ERG, 2020)
Health Hazard
Central nervous system depression ranging from dizziness and incoordination to anesthesia and respiratory arrest, depending on concentration and extent of inhalation. Irregular heartbeat is rare but is a dangerous complication at anesthetic levels. (USCG, 1999)
Reactivity Profile
ISOBUTANE is incompatible with the following: Strong oxidizers (e.g., nitrates & perchlorates), chlorine, fluorine, (nickel carbonyl + oxygen) (NIOSH, 2022).
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

No information available.

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 115 [Gases - Flammable (Including Refrigerated Liquids)]:

IMMEDIATE PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE: Isolate spill or leak area for at least 100 meters (330 feet) in all directions.

LARGE SPILL: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 800 meters (1/2 mile).

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions. In fires involving Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) (UN1075), Butane (UN1011), Butylene (UN1012), Isobutylene (UN1055), Propylene (UN1077), Isobutane (UN1969), and Propane (UN1978), also refer to BLEVE - SAFETY PRECAUTIONS (ERG page 366). (ERG, 2020)
Firefighting
Excerpt from ERG Guide 115 [Gases - Flammable (Including Refrigerated Liquids)]:

DO NOT EXTINGUISH A LEAKING GAS FIRE UNLESS LEAK CAN BE STOPPED. CAUTION: Hydrogen (UN1049), Deuterium (UN1957), Hydrogen, refrigerated liquid (UN1966) and Hydrogen and Methane mixture, compressed (UN2034) will burn with an invisible flame. Use an alternate method of detection (thermal camera, broom handle, etc.).

SMALL FIRE: Dry chemical or CO2.

LARGE FIRE: Water spray or fog. If it can be done safely, move undamaged containers away from the area around the fire. CAUTION: For LNG - Liquefied natural gas (UN1972) pool fires, DO NOT USE water. Use dry chemical or high-expansion foam.

FIRE INVOLVING TANKS: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned master stream devices or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Do not direct water at source of leak or safety devices; icing may occur. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned master stream devices or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. (ERG, 2020)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 115 [Gases - Flammable (Including Refrigerated Liquids)]:

ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames) from immediate area. All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. If possible, turn leaking containers so that gas escapes rather than liquid. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. Do not direct water at spill or source of leak. CAUTION: For LNG - Liquefied natural gas (UN1972), DO NOT apply water, regular or alcohol-resistant foam directly on spill. Use a high-expansion foam if available to reduce vapors. Prevent spreading of vapors through sewers, ventilation systems and confined areas. Isolate area until gas has dispersed. CAUTION: When in contact with refrigerated/cryogenic liquids, many materials become brittle and are likely to break without warning. (ERG, 2020)
Protective Clothing
Excerpt from NIOSH Pocket Guide for Isobutaneexternal link:

Skin: FROSTBITE - Compressed gases may create low temperatures when they expand rapidly. Leaks and uses that allow rapid expansion may cause a frostbite hazard. Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent the skin from becoming frozen.

Eyes: FROSTBITE - Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact with the liquid that could result in burns or tissue damage from frostbite.

Wash skin: No recommendation is made specifying the need for washing the substance from the skin (either immediately or at the end of the work shift).

Remove: WHEN WET (FLAMMABLE) - Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard (i.e., for liquids with a flash point <100°F).

Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the workshift.

Provide: FROSTBITE WASH - Quick drench facilities and/or eyewash fountains should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is any possibility of exposure to liquids that are extremely cold or rapidly evaporating. (NIOSH, 2022)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
No information available.
First Aid
Excerpt from NIOSH Pocket Guide for Isobutaneexternal link:

Eye: FROSTBITE - If eye tissue is frozen, seek medical attention immediately; if tissue is not frozen, immediately and thoroughly flush the eyes with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the lower and upper eyelids. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, get medical attention as soon as possible.

Skin: FROSTBITE - If frostbite has occurred, seek medical attention immediately; do NOT rub the affected areas or flush them with water. In order to prevent further tissue damage, do NOT attempt to remove frozen clothing from frostbitten areas. If frostbite has NOT occurred, immediately and thoroughly wash contaminated skin with soap and water.

Breathing: RESPIRATORY SUPPORT - If a person breathes large amounts of this chemical, move the exposed person to fresh air at once. If breathing has stopped, perform artificial respiration. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Get medical attention as soon as possible. (NIOSH, 2022)

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • C4H10
Flash Point: -117°F (USCG, 1999)
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): 1.8 % (USCG, 1999)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): 8.4 % (USCG, 1999)
Autoignition Temperature: 890°F (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: -427.5°F (USCG, 1999)
Vapor Pressure: 3.1 atm at 70°F (NIOSH, 2022)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 2.06 (NIOSH, 2022)
Specific Gravity: 0.557 at 68°F (USCG, 1999)
Boiling Point: 10.8°F at 760 mmHg (USCG, 1999)
Molecular Weight: 58.12 (USCG, 1999)
Water Solubility: Slight (NIOSH, 2022)
Ionization Energy/Potential: 10.74 eV (NIOSH, 2022)
IDLH: data unavailable

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

No AEGL information available.

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

No ERPG information available.

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Methylpropane, 2-; (Isobutane) (75-28-5) 5500 ppm 1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. 17000 ppm 2-flame icon indicates value is 50-99% of LEL. 53000 ppm 3-flame icon indicates value is 100% or more of LEL. LEL = 18000 ppm
1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL.
2-flame icon indicates value is 50-99% of LEL.
3-flame icon indicates value is 100% or more of LEL.
(DOE, 2018)

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Isobutane 75-28-5 10000 pounds
Propane, 2-methyl 75-28-5 10000 pounds

(EPA List of Lists, 2022)

CISA Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

RELEASE THEFT SABOTAGE
Chemical of Interest CAS Number Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Isobutane; [Propane, 2-methyl] 75-28-5 1.00 % 10000 pounds flammable

(CISA, 2007)

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

No regulatory information available.

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.
  • A 31
  • A 31 (HYDROCARBON)
  • 1,1-DIMETHYLETHANE
  • ISO-BUTANE
  • ISOBUTANE
  • 2-METHYLPROPANE
  • PROPANE, 2-METHYL
  • R 600A
  • TRIMETHYLMETHANE

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